BLADDER
immunoglobulin,
if there is any possibility
that the animal could be infected with
the rabies virus. (See also
bites, human;
insect bites; snake bites; spider bites; ven-
omous bites and stings.)
bites, human
Wounds that are caused by one person
biting another. Human bites rarely result
in serious tissue damage or blood loss;
but infection from any microorganisms
in the mouth is likely, particularly if the
bite is deep. For example, there is a risk
of
tetanus
infection, and transmission of
hepatitis B, herpes simplex,
and
HIV
through
a human bite is a theoretical hazard.
Bitot’s spots
Grey, foamy patches that appear on
the
conjunctiva
(the mucous membrane
covering the front of the eye). Bitot’s
spots, which are made up of keratinized
(horny) cells, are associated with
vita-
min A
deficiency.
black death
The medieval name for bubonic
plague,
which in past epidemics killed 50 per
cent of its victims. One feature of the
disease is bleeding under the skin, causing
bluish-black bruises, hence the name.
black eye
A dark discoloration of the skin around
the eye, usually following an injury The
discoloration is due to blood collecting
under the skin (see
bruise).
Because the
skin around the eye is loose and thin,
bruising is darker than on other parts of
the body A cold compress held over the
eye can help to relieve the discomfort.
blackhead
Also called a comedo, a semi-solid,
black-capped plug of keratin and sebum
that blocks the outlet of a sebaceous
(oil-forming) gland in the skin. Black-
heads occur most commonly on the
face, chest, shoulders, and back, and
they are associated with increased seba-
ceous gland activity They are one of the
features of most types of
acne.
blackout
A common term for loss of conscious-
ness (see
fainting).
black teeth
See
discoloured teeth.
blackwater fever
An occasional, life-threatening compli-
cation of falciparum
malaria
(the most
dangerous form of malaria). Symptoms
include loss of consciousness, fever,
vomiting, and very dark urine (due to
pigment from destroyed
red blood cells
being filtered into the urine).
bladder
The hollow, muscular organ situated in
the lower abdomen that acts as a reser-
voir for
urine.
The bladder lies within,
B
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