BOOSTER
B
Other types of bone tumour are
osteoma
and chondroma (see
chondromatosis).
Treatment is needed only if the tumour
becomes large or causes symptoms by
pressing on other structures. In such
cases, it can be removed by surgery.
Osteoclastoma (also called a giant cell
tumour), which usually occurs in the
arm or leg of a young adult, is tender
and painful and has to be removed.
booster
A follow-up dose of
vaccine,
given to
reinforce or prolong immunity after an
initial course of
immunization.
borborygmi
The medical name for
bowel sounds
that
are audible without a stethoscope.
borderline personality disorder
A personality disorder that falls between
neurotic and psychotic levels. Mood
changes are often rapid and inappro-
priate. Angry outbursts are common, as
are impulsive, self-damaging acts such
as gambling or suicide attempts.
Bordetella pertussis
A species of
bacteria
that may infect the
human respiratory tract and is responsi-
ble for causing
whooping cough.
Bornholm disease
One of the various names for epidemic
pleurodynia,
an infectious viral disease
that is characterized by severe chest
pains and fever.
Borrelia
A genus of spiral-shaped
bacteria
trans-
mitted through tick bites (see
ticks and
disease).
B
orrelia
species cause
relapsing
fever
(an infectious disease characterized
by recurrent bouts of fever) and also
Lyme disease.
bottle-feeding
Infant feeding using a milk preparation
usually based on modified cow’s milk.
This formula milk contains similar pro-
portions of protein, fat, lactose (milk
sugar), and minerals to those in human
milk, but it lacks the protective antibod-
ies that are present in breast milk.
Vitamins are added.
In some cases, medical problems in
the mother or child may make
breast-
feeding
impossible or undesirable, in
which case bottle-feeding is recom-
mended. However, bottle-fed babies are
at higher risk of gastrointestinal infec-
tions than breast-fed babies and may be
more likely to develop allergic disor-
ders. (See also
feeding, infant.)
Botox
A brand name for the drug
botulinum
toxin,
which is used to treat muscle
spasm in conditions such as
cerebral
palsy.
Botox is also used for cosmetic
reasons to reduce the appearance of
wrinkles in the skin.
botulinum toxin
A potentially lethal toxin produced by
the
bacterium
C
lostridium
botulinum
(see
botulism
). In tiny doses, botulinum
toxin is used as a
muscle-relaxant drug
to
control muscle spasms in some disor-
ders (see
blepharospasm
;
facial spasm).
It
is also increasingly used for cosmetic
purposes;
when
injected
into
facial
muscles, botulinum toxin temporarily
reduces wrinkles.
botulism
A rare but serious form of poisoning
caused by eating improperly canned or
preserved food contaminated with a
toxin produced by the bacterium C
los
-
tridium
botulinum
.
The
toxin
causes
progressive muscular paralysis as well as
other disturbances of the central and
peripheral nervous system. C
lostridium
botulinum
produces spores that resist
boiling, salting, smoking, and some
forms of pickling. These spores, which
multiply only in the absence of air,
thrive in canned or poorly preserved
food. Ingestion of even minute amounts
of toxin can lead to severe poisoning.
SYMPTOMS
The symptoms of botulism first occur
within 8 to 3 6 hours of ingesting con-
taminated food. They include difficulty
in swallowing and speaking; nausea and
vomiting; and double vision. Prompt
treatment is vital.
In infants, the toxin can form within
the body after the ingestion of foods
contaminated with the bacterium, such
as honey. (See also
food poisoning.)
Bouchard’s node
A bony swelling that forms on the joint
in the middle of the finger in a person
suffering from
osteoarthritis.
(See also
Heberden’s node.)
bougie
A rod-shaped instrument used for inser-
tion into tubular organs, such as the
urethra, during investigations or treat-
ment. It may also be used to stretch a
narrowed area. There are various types
of bougie; they can be either hollow or
solid, and most are slightly flexible.
bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE)
A neurological disorder in cattle that
can be transmitted to humans through
the consumption of infected meat, caus-
ing
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
(See also
encephalopathy.)
bowel
A common name for the large and/or
small
intestines.
bowel disorders
Any disorder that affects the
intestine.
Common bowel disorders are
inflam-
matory bowel disease
and
irritable bowel
syndrome (IBS).
(See also
intestine
disor-
ders box;
intestine, cancer of; intestine,
obstruction of; intestine, tumours of.)
bowel movements, abnormal
See
faeces, abnormal
.
bowel sounds
Sounds made by the passage of air and
fluid through the
intestine.
Absent or
abnormal bowel sounds may indicate a
disorder. Those that are audible without
a stethoscope are known as borborygmi
and are a normal part of the digestive
process, but they may be exaggerated by
anxiety and some intestinal disorders.
Bowen’s disease
A rare skin disorder that is characterized
by the formation of a flat patch of red,
scaly skin, most commonly on the face
or the
hands.
Bowen’s
disease
may
become cancerous.
Treatment involves surgical removal
of the diseased skin, or its destruction
by freezing or
cauterization
.
bowleg
An outward curving of bones in the
legs that results in wide separation of
the knees when the feet are together.
Bowlegs are common in very young
children, and they are a normal part of
development. In most cases, the curve
straightens as the child grows. If the
bowing is severe, is on one side only, or
persists beyond the age of three, a doc-
tor should be consulted. Surgery may be
needed. Rarely, leg deformity is a result
of bone disease, particularly
rickets
(a
vitamin D deficiency) in children.
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