m ilk production after childbirth and to
Side effects in -
clude nausea and vom iting; high doses
may cause drowsiness and confusion.
A lung disorder in w hich one or more
bronchi (air passages leading from the
trachea) are abnormally widened and
distorted, with damaged linings. Bron-
chiectasis commonly develops during
childhood and was once associated with
infections such as
(whooping cough). The condition may
also be a complication of
long-term infection within the airways
and the continuous production of large
volumes of green or yellow sputum
(phlegm). Extensive bronchiectasis may
cause shortness of breath.
Symptoms are usually controlled with
technique that clears secretions from the
lungs. If the condition is confined to
one area of lung, surgical removal of the
damaged area may be recommended.
One of many small airways of the
Bronchioles branch from larger airways
(bronchi) and subdivide into progres-
sively smaller tubes before reaching the
gases are exchanged.
An acute viral infection of the lungs,
mainly affecting babies and young chil-
dren, in w hich the bronchioles
become inflamed. A common cause is
the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Symptoms of bronchiolitis include
rapid breathing, a cough, and fever. No
treatment may be
severe cases, hospital admission is nec-
essary so that
given. If treatment is prompt, recovery
is usually w ithin a few days.
may be given to prevent a sec-
ondary bacterial infection.
A disorder in w hich the bronchi, the
large air passages to the
inflamed. Bronchitis results in a cough
that may produce considerable quanti-
ties of sputum (phlegm) and may be
acute or chronic. Both types are more
common in smokers and in areas with
high atmospheric pollution. (See also
A form of
usually due to a
viral infection, that develops suddenly
but often clears up within a few days.
Bacterial infection of the airways may
be a complication. Smokers, babies, the
elderly, and people with lung disease
are particularly susceptible. Symptoms
include wheezing, shortness of breath,
and a cough producing yellow or green
sputum. There may also be pain behind
the sternum (breastbone) and fever.
Symptoms may be relieved by drink-
ing plenty of fluids and inhaling steam
or using a humidifier. Most cases clear
up without further treatment, but acute
bronchitis may be serious in people
w ho already have lung damage.
Smoking-induced inflammation of the
airways associated with
w hich the air sacs in the lungs are
destroyed. The combination of chronic
bronchitis and emphysema is known as
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
pulmonary disease, chronic obstruc-
Symptoms include a productive
cough and progressive breathlessness.
A substance that causes narrowing of
the airways. Bronchoconstrictors, such
are released during an
allergic reaction (see
) and may
attack. The effect can
be reversed by a
• Ephedrine •Epinephrine •Fenoterol
• Salbutamol •Salmeterol •Terbutaline
an tich o lin ergics
Drugs that widen the bronchioles (small
airways in the lungs) to improve air flow
and breathing. They are especially used
and chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (see
ease, chronic obstructive
in w hich the
lungs are inflamed and damaged.
There are three main types of broncho-
dilator drug. Sympathomimetics (such
) are used prim arily for the
rapid relief of
breathing difficulty. Anti-
(such as ipratropium) and
more frequently used for the long-term
prevention of attacks of breathing diffi-
culty. Bronchodilators can be given by
in tablet form, or, in severe
The main side effects of sympathomim-
palpitations and trembling.
Anticholinergics may cause dry mouth,
blurred vision, and, rarely, difficulty in
headaches, nausea, and palpitations.
procedure used for examining
the bronchi, w hich are the two main air
passages of the lungs. Once used to
distortion of the bronchi), this method
has now been largely replaced by other
imaging techniques, especially
The most common form of
In bronchopneumonia, inflammation is
spread throughout the lungs in small
patches around the airways; in lobar
pneumonia, it is confined to one lobe.
Examination of the bronchi, the main
airways of the lungs (see
means of an
known as a bronchoscope. Broncho-
scopes may be rigid or flexible.
WHY IT IS DONE
Bronchoscopy is performed to inspect
the bronchi for abnormalities, such as
samples of mucus; to obtain cells; and
samples from the airways
or lungs. A bronchoscope with special
attachments is used to carry out treat-
ments such as removing inhaled foreign
bodies, destroying abnormal growths,
and sealing off damaged blood vessels.
Temporary narrowing of the bronchi
(the air passages to the lungs). Bron-
chospasm is caused by contraction of
the muscles in the walls of the bronchi,
by inflammation of the lining of the
bronchi, or by a combination of both.
Contraction may be triggered by the
release of substances during an allergic