Superficial burns cause the skin to redden and peel
but, unless extensive, need no treatment. Burns
that blister usually heal well but can be fatal if they
affect a large area of the body. Burns that extend
beyond the skin layers may damage fat, nerves, and
muscle; and healing is slow because they are likely
to require skin grafting.
E p i d e r m i s
D e r m is
S w e a t g l a n d
H a i r f o l l i c l e
S u b c u t a n e o u s
f a t
d e g r e e
d e g r e e
d e g r e e
Degrees of burns
Burns are divided into three categories. First-degree (or
superficial) burns affectthe epidermis and the skin may
peel; second-degree (or partial thickness) burns cause
blisters; third-degree (or full thickness) burns destroy the
whole ofthe skin’s thickness and require special treatment.
Skin surface area
For assessment of burns, the body
is divided roughly into nine per
cent areas. This varies slightlyIn
young children because the head
is larger in relation to the body.
N e r v e
A fluid-filled sac that acts as a cushion at
a pressure point, often where a tendon or
muscle crosses bone or other muscles.
The important bursae are found around
the knee, elbow, and shoulder joints.
Inflammation of a
sac) causing pain and swelling. Bursitis
may result from pressure, friction, or
injury to the membrane surrounding a
joint, or to infection. Prepatellar bursitis
This condition, which is caused by inflammation of
a bursa, produces a fluid-filled swelling in front of
(also known as housemaid’s knee), for
the result of prolonged
kneeling on a hard surface. Treatment
is by avoiding further pressure and by
may be necessary
if the bursa is infected.
that is used to treat
(a disease of the lining of the
A skin eruption, also called a butterfly
patch, that is characteristic of systemic
buzzer and pad system
A device used to treat bedwetting (see
A pad that detects
moisture is placed in the bed and is
attached to a buzzer that sounds when
the pad becomes wet with urine. The
person is woken up as soon as he or she
starts to pass urine and gradually learns
to wake up before starting to pass urine.
Surgical procedures that are used to
term bypass usually refers to operations
on arteries, although blockages in the
can also be treated
w ith bypass operations.
The most common type of bypass
coronary artery bypass
is used to treat
coronary artery disease
(a condition in w hich the arteries have
become blocked or narrowed by
Obstructions can be bypassed
by using sections of healthy artery or
vein from elsewhere in the body or
using tubing made from a synthetic
material such as dacron.
Intestinal bypass operations are most
often performed to treat cancer patients
in whom the tumour is too extensive to
be removed surgically. The blocked area
is bypassed by joining the sections of
bowel above and below the blockage.
A lung disease caused by the dust that is
produced during the processing of flax,
cotton, hemp, or sisal. Byssinosis causes
a feeling of tightness in the chest and
shortness of breath that may become
chronic (of long duration) if exposure
to the agent continues.
and other drugs used to treat
asthma can relieve the symptoms; good
masks reduce the risk.
Common bypass locations
The coronary artery and the iliofemoral vessels are
the most common locations for bypasses.