A condition of severe weight loss and
decline in health caused by a serious
underlying disease, such as cancer or
tuberculosis, or by starvation.
A dead human body used as a source of
study and dissection.
The toxic effects of cadmium, a tinlike
metal. Poisoning as a result of inhala-
tion of cadmium fumes is an industrial
hazard, the effects of w hich depend on
the duration and severity of exposure.
Eating vegetables grown in cadmium-
rich soil, or the consumption of food
or drink stored in cadmium-lined con-
tainers, can also cause poisoning.
may lead to
of the lungs). Exposure over a long
period can lead to urinary tract
form of permanent lung damage).
The first section of the large intestine,
(the end of the small
intestine) to the ascending
projects from the caecum. (See
An operation to deliver a baby from the
mother’s uterus through a horizontal
or, less commonly, a vertical incision in
the abdomen. A caesarean section is
performed if vaginal delivery would be
difficult or dangerous for the mother
or the baby. Increasingly women who
do not want to go through labour are
also opting to have the operation.
A caesarean section may be perfor-
med using either an
or general anaesthesia (see
The procedure for performing
a caesarean section is shown in the
illustrated box (see opposite page).
After the operation, the mother is given
(painkillers) as required.
If there are no complications, she and
can usually leave
about a week after the operation.
café au lait spots
Coffee-coloured patches on the skin
that may occur on any part of the body
Café au lait spots are usually oval in
shape and may measure several centi-
metres across. Generally, the presence
of a few of these spots is not signifi-
cant. However, larger numbers of them
may be a sign of
hereditary disorder of the sheaths that
surround nerve fibres.
that is found in coffee,
tea, cocoa, and cola drinks. Caffeine
reduces fatigue, improves
faster, and has a diuretic effect.
The strength and preparation method
determine exact amounts of caffeine
present (in mg per cup).
^ ^ 5omg
Large quantities of caffeine may pro-
duce side effects such as agitation and
tremors. A regular high intake may lead
so that people
need to increase their caffeine intake to
obtain the equivalent stimulant effect.
In people who consume large amounts
of caffeine, withdrawal symptoms (see
such as headaches
and tiredness, may occur after a few
hours without caffeine.
Caffeine may be used in some drug
preparations, particularly in combina-
in preventive treat-
ments for migraine.
An alternative term for
It usually occurs when a person
surfaces too quickly after a deep dive.
A preparation of zinc oxide and iron
oxide that is applied to the skin as an
ointment, lotion, or dusting powder to
relieve irritation and itching. Calamine
has a protective, cooling, and drying
effect. It may be combined with a local
Inflammation of the bursa (fluid-filled
pad) that cushions the
prevents friction at the back of the heel
The condition causes pain
and swelling but usually clears up with
The heel bone. The calcaneus is one of
the tarsal bones and is the largest bone
between the back of the calcaneus and
the calf muscles; it controls upward
and downward movements of the foot.
The calcaneus may be fractured by a fall
from a height on to the heel. M inor
fractures do not usually cause problems
affected foot and leg in a
serious fracture, with compression of
the bone, may cause permanent dam-
age to the joints involved in turning the
foot in and out, leading to pain and
stiffness that are aggravated by walking.
The point at w hich the Achilles ten-
don joins the calcaneus may become
stress from the pull of the tendon (in
for example). In
children, this area may be inflamed and
) because the
bone is still growing.
LOCATION OF THE CALCANEUS
The calcaneus is the largest of the
tarsal bones. It projects backwards
beyond the leg bones.
C a l c a n e u s