CALCANEUS
PROCEDURE FOR A CAESAREAN SECTION
A caesarean section allows delivery of a baby through a
horizontal or vertical cut in the abdominal and uterine walls.
The mother is given epidural anaesthesia, so that she remains
conscious during the procedure, or general anaesthesia.
HOW IT IS DONE
V e r t e b r a
S p i n a l c o r d
1
First, epidural anaesthesia is carried
outto temporarily numb the abdomen
by deadening the nerves leading to it.
A needle is introduced into the epidural
space and a catheter is threaded through
it. A local anaesthetic is injected down
the
c a t h e t e r .
A catheter is also inserted
into the bladder to empty it.
2
The abdomen is then opened,
usually through a horizontal
incision made just above the pubic
bone. This type of cut heals most
effectively. The resulting scar is
hardly noticeable and comes
below the “bikini line”.
C a t h e t e r
H o r iz o n t a l i n c is io n
WHY IT IS DONE
A caesarean can be elective
(planned) in cases of breech
presentation; placenta
praevia (where the placenta
is lying close to or across
the cervix); the mother’s ill
health; or, most commonly,
if there were problems in
previous caesareans that still
exist (such as the mother
having a small pelvis).
Elective caesarean is
sometimes requested by the
parents for social reasons.
An emergency caesarean
is needed in cases of
fetal
distress
(lack of oxygen);
unsuccessful induction of
labour; or bleeding (such
as in placental abruption
(premature separation) or
placenta praevia).
Breech presentation
C
»
3
S u r g i c a l n u r s e
O b s t e t r ic ia n
I n t r a v e n o u s d r ip
The amniotic fluid is drained off by suction. The baby is
delivered through an incision in the lower part ofthe
uterus. The umbilical cord is cut and the afterbirth removed.
The incisions in the uterus and abdomen are then sewn up.
The mother is given an injection ofergometrine and oxytocin
to make the uterus contract and stop any bleeding.
A n a e s t h e t i s t
B a b y r e s u s c i t a t i o n u n it
S k in
135
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