CARBIMAZOLE
capacity, vital
The maximum volume of air, usually
around
4.5
litres, that can be expelled
from the lungs following maximum
inhalation. Vital capacity is measured as
part of lung function tests (see
pul-
monary function tests
) .
cap, cervical
A flexible contraceptive device that is
placed directly over the
cervix
to prevent
sperm from entering it (see
contracep-
tion, barrier methods of
) .
cap, duodenal
See
duodenal cap
.
Capgras’ syndrome
The delusion (false belief) that a relative
or friend has been replaced by an identi-
cal impostor. Capgras’ syndrome, also
known as the “illusion of doubles’’, is
seen most frequently in patients with
paranoid
schizophrenia
but can also occur
in some organic brain disorders (see
brain
syndrome, organic
)
and
affective disorders
.
capillary
Any of the vessels that carry blood
between the smallest arteries, or arteri-
oles, and the smallest veins, or venules
(see
circulatory system
) .
Capillaries form
a fine network throughout the body’s
organs and tissues. Their thin walls are
permeable; as a result, they allow blood
and cells to exchange constituents such
as oxygen,
glucose,
carbon
dioxide,
and water (see
respiration
) .
Capillaries open and close to blood
flow according to the requirements of
different organs for oxygen and nutri-
ents. For example, when a person is
running, most of the capillaries in the
leg muscles are open, but at rest many
are closed. The opening and closing of
skin capillaries helps to regulate
temper-
ature
.
The blood flow through each
capillary is controlled by a tiny circle of
muscle at its entrance.
DISORDERS
A direct blow to an area of the body
may rupture the capillary walls, caus-
ing bleeding under the skin, w hich in
turn results in swelling and bruising.
Capillaries become more fragile in
elderly people, in people taking high
doses
of
corticosteroid drugs
,
and in
those suffering from
scurvy
(vitamin C
deficiency). All such people have a ten-
dency to develop
purpura
(small areas
of bleeding under the skin w hich often
appear as reddish-purple patches).
capillary haemangioma
See
haemangioma.
Caplan’s syndrome
A combination of
rheumatoid arthritis
and
pneumoconiosis
(a lung disorder
that is caused by inhalation of certain
mineral dusts). In Caplan’s syndrome,
large areas of fibrous (scar) tissue form
in
the
lungs,
often
causing
severe
shortness of breath.
capping, dental
See
crown, dental.
capsule
An anatomical structure enclosing an
organ or body part. For example, the
liver, kidneys, joints, and eye lenses are
all enclosed in capsules.
The term “ capsule” is also used to
describe a soluble, elongated shell, usu-
ally made of gelatine, w hich contains a
drug to be taken by mouth. The coating
of some capsules prevents potentially
irritant drugs from being released into
the stomach, or allows drugs to be
released
slowly
to
enable
them
to
be taken less frequently
capsulitis
Inflammation of a
capsule,
a structure
that encloses an organ or joint. One
example of capsulitis is
frozen shoulder
.
captopril
An
ACE inhibitor drug
.
These drugs are
used in the treatment of
hypertension
(high blood pressure),
heart failure
,
and
diabetic
nephropathy
(kidney damage).
caput
C
The Latin word for head. The term is
commonly used of the caput succe-
daneum: a soft, temporary swelling in
the scalp of newborn babies, w hich is
caused by pressure during labour. The
word “ caput” was once also used to
refer to the face, skull, and associated
organs; to the origin of a muscle; or to
any enlarged extremity, such as the
caput femoris, the head of the femur
(thigh bone).
carbamazepine
An
anticonvulsant drug
that is chemically
related to the
tricyclic antidepressants
.
Taken orally or as suppositories, carba-
mazepine
reduces
the
frequency
of
seizures that are caused by abnormal
nerve signals in the brain and is used
mainly in the long-term treatment of
epilepsy
.
The drug is also prescribed to
relieve
neuralgia
(intermittent
severe
pain caused by nerve damage or irrit-
ation) and as a mood-stabilizing drug
in the treatment of psychiatric dis-
orders such as
mania
.
carbaryl
An insecticide used to treat head
lice
and
crab lice
.
Carbaryl is applied topi-
cally as a liquid; however, it must not
come into contact w ith the eyes or
w ith areas of broken skin.
carbenoxolone
An
ulcer-healing drug
that is used to treat
inflammation and
ulceration
of the
oesophagus, but w hich has now largely
been superseded by antibiotics and by
proton pump inhibitors. A gel contain-
ing carbenoxolone is commonly used
to relieve mouth ulcers.
carbimazole
A drug that is used to treat
hyper-
thyroidism
(overactivity of the thyroid
gland). Carbimazole is slow to take
effect, so
beta-blockers
may be given to
relieve symptoms in the interim.
Long-term treatment with carbima-
zole
may reduce the production
of
blood cells by the bone marrow, so
regular blood counts are required. Side
effects may include headaches, dizzi-
ness, joint pain, and nausea.
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