cartilage, which is part of the
(voice-box). The Adam’s apple enlarges
in males at puberty.
The abbreviation for attention deficit
disorder, more commonly known as
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Dependence on, and craving for, a par-
ticular drug, such as alcohol, diazepam
(a tranquillizer), or heroin. Reducing or
stopping intake of the drug may lead to
characteristic physiological and/or psy-
such as tremor or anxiety.
The term addiction may also be used in
relation to compulsive behaviour, such
A rare chronic disorder in which there
is deficiency of the corticosteroid hor-
which are normally produced by the
adrenal cortex (the outer parts of the
which are situated on the
top of the kidneys). In addition, exces-
sive amounts of the hormone
secreted by the pituitary gland (at the
base of the brain) in an attempt to
increase output of the corticosteroid
hormones. The secretion and activity of
another hormone, melanocyte stimulat-
which leads to increased synthesis of
pigment in the skin.
Addison’s disease can be caused by any
disease that destroys the adrenal cor-
tices. The most common cause is an
that attack the adrenal glands.
Symptoms of the disease generally dev-
elop gradually over months or years and
include tiredness, weakness, abdominal
pain, and weight loss. Excess MSH may
cause darkening of the skin in the crea-
ses of the palms, pressure areas of the
body, and the mouth.
crises, brought on by infection, injury
or other stresses, can also occur. The
symptoms of these are mainly due to
extreme muscle weakness, dehydration,
(low blood pressure), confu-
sion, and coma.
blood glucose) also occurs due to a
deficiency of hydrocortisone.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Diagnosis of Addison’s disease is gener-
ally made if the patient fails to respond
to an injection of ACTH, which norm-
ally stimulates hydrocortisone secretion.
is needed to replace the deficient hor-
mones. Treatment of Addisonian crises
involves rapid infusion of saline and
glucose and supplementary doses of
Movement of a limb towards the central
line of the body, or of a digit towards
the axis of a limb. Muscles that carry out
this movement are often called adduc-
tors. (See also
Any one of the muscles that carry out
the movement of
adenitis (swelling and tenderness of the
lymph nodes in the neck) occurs in cer-
and the viral infection gland-
ular fever (see
of the lymph nodes inside the abdomen
and is usually caused by a viral infection.
In many cases of adenitis, treatment
is not necessary When it occurs as the
result of a bacterial infection, treatment
of the infection with
generally also result in an improvement
in the condition of the lymph nodes.
The technical name for a
gland or glandular tissue, or for a can-
cer in which the cells form glandlike
structures. An adenocarcinoma arises
from epithelium (the layer of cells that
Cancers of the colon (the main part
of the large intestine), breast, pancreas,
and kidney are usually adenocarcino-
mas, as are some cancers of the cervix,
oesophagus, salivary glands, and various
other organs. (See also
kidney cancer; pancreas, cancer of. )
Surgical removal of the
adenoidectomy is usually performed on
a child with abnormally large adenoids
that are causing recurrent infections of
the middle ear or air sinuses. The oper-
ation may be performed together with
There are few after-effects, and the
patient can generally begin to eat nor-
mally the following day.