CESTODES
C
the condition is advanced, there may be
vaginal bleeding or a bloodstained dis-
charge at unexpected times, such as
between periods,
after
sexual
inter-
course, or after the menopause. There
may be pain if the cancer has spread
into the deeper parts of the cervix and
then out into the pelvic tissues.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
If a smear test has an abnormal result,
colposcopy
(inspection
of the
cervix
w ith a viewing instrument) or a
cone
biopsy
may be carried out.
A localized cancer in its early stages
may be destroyed by
electrocoagulation
(application of an
electric
current),
diathermy
(heat treatment),
laser treat-
ment
,
or
cryosurgery
(freezing).
If the cancer has spread into the
cervical canal, a cone biopsy may be
sufficient to remove all of the diseased
tissue. In more advanced cases affect-
ing the pelvic organs,
radiotherapy
may
be given. In certain severe cases, radi-
cal
surgery,
in
w hich
the
bladder,
vagina, cervix, uterus, and rectum are
removed, may be recommended possi-
bly along w ith chemotherapy.
cestodes
The scientific name for tapeworms, a
group
of long, flat, multisegmented
parasites (see
tapeworm infestation
) .
cetirizine
An
antihistamine drug
that is used to
relieve the symptoms of certain condi-
tions such as allergic
rhinitis
(hay fever)
and
urticaria
(nettle rash).
cetrimide
An
antiseptic
that
is
used
in
many
preparations for cleansing the skin.
CFC-free inhalers
Pressurized aerosol
inhalers
(devices for
delivering drugs to treat asthma and
other lung disorders) in w hich chloro-
fluorocarbons, or CFCs (used to propel
drugs out of the inhalers), have been
replaced by alternative propellants. This
change has been made in response to
evidence that CFCs are harmful to the
ozone layer in the earth’s atmosphere.
CFC propellants
See
chlorofluorocarbon propellants
.
Chagas’ disease
An infectious parasitic disease found
only in parts
of South and Central
America. Chagas’ disease is spread by
insects commonly called cone-nosed or
assassin bugs. The
parasites
live in the
bloodstream and can affect the heart,
intestines, and nervous system.
Symptoms include swelling of the
lymph nodes
and fever. Long-term com-
plications include damage to the heart.
The drug nifurtim ox kills the parasites
but has unpleasant side effects.
chalazion
A round, painless swelling in the upper
or lower eyelid caused by obstruction
of one of the
meibomian glands
,
w hich
lubricate the edges of the eyelids. Cha-
lazions are sometimes called meibomian
cysts. They can occur at any age and
may be more common in people suf-
fering from the skin conditions
acne
,
rosacea,
or seborrhoeic
dermatitis
.
If the cyst becomes infected, the eye-
lid becomes more swollen, red, and
painful. A large swelling putting pres-
sure on the
cornea
at the front of the
eye can cause blurring of vision. About
one-third of chalazions disappear w ith-
out treatment, but large cysts may need
to be removed surgically.
A chalazion on the lower lid
Small chalazions often disappear spontaneously.
Larger ones may need to be removed surgically.
challenge, food
See
exclusion diet
.
chancre, hard
An
ulcer
,
usually on the genitals, that
develops during the first stage of
syph-
ilis
(a sexually transmitted infection).
chancroid
A sexually transmitted infection, found
mainly in the tropics, that is charact-
erized by enlargement of the lymph
nodes in the groin and painful genital
ulcers
.
Chancroid is caused by the bac-
terium
H
aemophieus
ducreyi
.
Prompt
treatment of the condition with
antibi-
otic drugs
is usually effective.
change of life
A phrase that is
popularly used to
describe the
menopause,
in w hich a
drop in hormone levels has a variety of
physical and mental repercussions.
chaperone
An individual who accompanies a doc-
tor during the physical examination of
a patient. Chaperones provide protec-
tion for both doctor and patient against
accusations of improper conduct.
The term “ chaperone” is also used to
refer to a
protein
that helps other pro-
teins
to
fold
up
into
their
correct
three-dimensional shapes.
chapped skin
Sore, cracked, rough skin, usually on
the hands and face
(particularly the
lips), caused by dryness. Chapping is
caused by the lack, or removal, of the
natural oils that keep skin supple. It
tends to occur in cold weather, when
oil-secreting glands produce less oil, or
after repeated washing or wetting.
Chapping can be prevented by wear-
ing
protective
gloves
or
applying
barrier creams
before
immersing
the
hands in water, then drying the skin
well. Areas of chapped skin can be
treated w ith hand or face cream.
charcoal
A form of carbon that is used in medi-
cine mainly as an adsorbent agent (a
substance that binds to toxins) in the
emergency treatment of some types of
poisoning and drug overdose.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
An inherited muscle-wasting disease of
the legs (see
peroneal muscular atrophy).
Charcot’s joint
A joint damaged by repeated injuries
that go unnoticed due to loss of sensa-
tion in the area (see
neuropathic joint).
check-up
See
examination, physical
.
cheilitis
Inflammation, cracking, and dryness of
the lips. There are several possible caus-
es
of
cheilitis,
including
ill-fitting
dentures, a local infection, an allergy to
cosmetics,
excessive
sunbathing,
or
deficiency of riboflavin (vitamin B2).
Treatment is given for the underlying
cause; in the meantime, a soothing skin
cream can help to relieve the soreness.
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