CHILL
C
CHILD DEVELOPMENT: 2-5 YEARS
Locomotion
2
years
Children can climb furniture and
walk up and down stairs (using
two feet to each step).
3
years
Children can climb with agility,
throw and kick balls, ride tricycles,
and run around corners.
4
years
Children walk up and down stairs
with one footon each step, and
can stand, walk, and run on tiptoe.
5
years
Children can stand and hop on
one foot, and are skilful in rolling,
sliding, and swinging.
Vision and fine movement
2
years
Children can build towers ofsixor
seven blocks, can unscrew a lid,
and show a definite right- or left-
handedness.
3
years
Children hold crayons with an
adult grasp and can undo buttons,
but may need help buttoning them
up. Their handedness is clearly
established.
4
years
Children hold a pencil with a
mature grasp, can copy simple
letters (i.e. O,T, H
or V), and
can build a tower ofmore than
10 blocks.
5
years
Children can match 10 or 12
colours, can copy many more
letters, and can draw the full body
of a person with a recognizable
head and facial features.
Hearing, understanding, and speech
2
years
Children begin to listen to general
conversation. They obey simple
instructions and can use 50 or
more words meaningfully. They
constantly talk to themselves and
can put two or more words
together to communicate.
3
years
Children listen to conversation
and enjoy nursery stories. They
understand the difference
between statements, commands,
and questions. They have large
vocabularies and speak clearly in
sentences; there may be some errors.
4
years
Children can repeat softly spoken
words at a distance of 1 m. They
speak fluently and with correct
grammar, and can provide their
full names, ages, and addresses.
They tell long stories, confusing
fact and fantasy.
5
years
Children enjoy reciting rhymes,
telling stories, and having books
read to them.
Social behaviour and play
2
years
Children ask the names of
everything and enjoy participating
in nursery rhymes and songs. They
askfor food and drinkand indicate
toilet needs. They begin to play with
toys more imaginatively, though
they may not like to share them.
They are constantly demanding and
will throw tantrums iftheir desires
are thwarted.
3
years
Children constantly askquestions.
They can dress and undress and eat
with a fork and spoon. They are dry
and clean during the dayand
sometimes at night. Three year olds
can play with toys imaginatively and
will share with others. They can be
reasoned with and have fewer
tantrums. They are also more
affectionate to younger siblings.
4
years
Children continue asking
questions constantly. They are
more independent and skilful
in dressing, undressing, eating,
and washing. They need to play
with other children and can share
with others. They can understand
past, present, and future.
5
years
Children ask the meaning of
abstract words. They like to build
complex structures out of bricks or
other objects. They continue in
imaginative and dramatic play. They
enjoy companionship and under-
stand the need for rules and fair
play. They have an understanding
of time and are generally sensible,
restrained, and independent.
Child
guidance professionals
include
the specialists such as psychiatric social
workers, psychiatrists, and psychologists.
These people often work closely togeth-
er in hospital paediatric departments, in
schools, or in child-guidance clinics.
Various methods of assessment and
therapy may be employed, depending
on the age of the child and the problem
involved. For young children,
play thera-
py
may be used to help with diagnosis.
Older children may be offered
coun-
selling, psychotherapy,
or
group therapy.
Family therapy
may be of benefit in cases
where there are relationship difficulties
between child and one or both parents.
chill
A
shivering
attack
accompanied
by
chattering teeth, pale skin, goose pim -
ples, and feeling cold. Chill frequently
precedes a fever. Repeated or severe
shivering suggests serious illness.
Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine is based
on the theory that a universal life-force,
called chi, manifests itself in the body
as two complementary qualities called
yin and yang
.
According to this belief,
vigorous yang and restraining yin must
be in balance, and the chi must flow
evenly for good health.
Treatments for illness aim to restore
the balance between yin and yang and
normalize the flow of chi in the body.
They include Chinese
herbal medicine
,
physical techniques such as
acupressure
and
acupuncture
,
and
t’ai chi
.
chiropody
The examination, diagnosis, treatment,
and prevention o f diseases and mal-
functions o f the foot and its related
structures. Chiropody is concerned with
many different types o f foot problem,
including walking disorders in chil-
dren,
ankle
injuries
in
adolescents,
fractures in athletes and joggers,
bun-
ions
and
hammer toes
in people o f all
ages, and the care o f ulcers, toenails,
and infections o f the feet suffered as a
complication of
diabetes mellitus
.
A per-
son w ho specializes in chiropody is
called a chiropodist.
chiropractic
A system o f treatment for a range of
disorders, that is based on manipula-
tion of the spine. The main principle of
chiropractic is the theory that disease
stems from the misalignment o f bones,
w hich causes various problems with
the nerves and muscles.
chlamydial infections
A group o f infectious diseases caused
by chlamydiae, a group of bacteria that
can multiply only by invading the cells
of another life-form.
166
previous page 165 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online next page 167 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online Home Toggle text on/off