CLOSED FRACTURE
clinical trial
See
trial, clinical.
Clinistix
A brand-named product that detects
glu-
cose
(sugar) in urine and w hich can be
used by people with
diabetes mellitus
to
monitor their condition. Clinistix con-
sists of test strips impregnated with a
chemical that reacts w ith glucose.
Clinitest
The brand name
of a product that
detects
glucose
(sugar) in urine, w hich
some people with
diabetes mellitus
use
to monitor their condition. Clinitest
consists of tablets containing a chem i-
cal that reacts with glucose.
clioquinol
An
antibacterial drug
and
antifungal drug
used as ear drops to treat infections of
the outer ear. Clioquinol is also inclu-
ded in some skin preparations.
clip
A small metal device used by surgeons
to hold a wound closed or to prevent
leakage from a blood vessel. Specialized
plastic clips are used in female steriliza-
tion operations (see
sterilization, female)
to seal the fallopian tubes.
clitoridectomy
An operation to remove the
clitoris
(see
circumcision, female
).
clitoris
A small, sensitive, erectile organ that is
part of the female genitalia. It is partly
enclosed in the
labia
and covered by a
fold of skin called the
prepuce
,
or hood.
The clitoris swells and becomes more
sensitive during sexual stimulation.
clobazam
A type of
benzodiazepine
drug used in
the treatment of
anxiety
and
epilepsy
.
clobetasone
A
corticosteroid drug
,
used as a cream or
an ointment to treat inflammatory skin
conditions, such as
eczema
.
clofibrate
A
lipid-lowering drug
that
helps
to
reduce levels of
cholesterol
and
trigly-
cerides
in
the
blood.
Clofibrate
is
prescribed as a treatment for some
types of
hyperlipidaemia
.
Clomid
A brand name for
clomifene
,
a drug that
is used to treat female infertility.
clomifene
A drug used to treat female
infertility
caused by failure to ovulate. M inor side
effects may include hot flushes, head-
ache,
nausea, breast tenderness,
and
blurred vision. More seriously,
ovarian
cysts
occasionally
develop,
but
they
shrink when the dose is reduced. The
drug may also cause multiple births.
clomipramine
A
tricyclic antidepressant drug
,
w hich is
used as a treatment for
depression
.
Side
effects
include
dry
mouth,
blurred
vision, and constipation.
clonazepam
A
benzodiazepine drug
used mainly as an
anticonvulsant drug
to prevent and treat
epileptic fits (see
epilepsy
) .
It also pre-
vents
petit mal
attacks in children. Side
effects include drowsiness, dizziness,
fatigue, and irritability.
clone
An exact copy. In medicine, the term
“ clone” usually refers to duplicates of
cells, genes, or organisms.
Clones
of cells are all
descended
from one original cell. In many types
of cancer,
cells
are
thought
to
be
derived from one abnormal cell. Clones
of genes are copies of a single gene. In
research, several clones of a gene can
be made so the gene can be studied in
detail. Clones of organisms are pro-
duced by removing the nuclei from
cells of a donor individual and trans-
planting them into the egg cells of
another individual. The eggs mature
into living plants or animals that are all
identical to the donor.
clonic
Relating to the abnormal muscle con-
tractions known as
clonus
,
w hich are
sometimes a sign of a brain or spinal
cord disorder.
clonic convulsion
A form of
seizure
in w hich there are
uncontrolled,
jerking
movements
of
the limbs and body (see
clonus
) .
Clonic
convulsions are a feature of some types
of
epilepsy
.
clonidine
An
antihypertensive drug
that controls
hypertension (high blood pressure) by
acting on the part of the brain that
regulates
the
size
of blood vessels.
Clonidine is also used to control hot
flushes in menopausal women and to
treat some cases of migraine. Possible
side effects of the drug include cons-
tipation, drowsiness, dry mouth, and
dizziness. Caution should be taken if
high doses of the drug are suddenly
stopped because this can cause a dan-
gerous rise in blood pressure.
clonus
A series of rapid, abnormal
muscle
con-
tractions. Clonus is a sign of damage to
nerve fibres that carry impulses from
the motor cortex in the
cerebrum
of the
brain to a particular muscle. It may
occur in the wrist, knee, ankle, or toe
in response to stretching of the muscles
in that area. It may also be a feature of
seizures (see
clonic convulsion
) .
clopidogrel
An
antiplatelet drug
that is used to pre-
vent the formation of unwanted blood
clots in individuals w ho are suffering
from
atherosclerosis
.
Clopixol
The brand name of zuclopenthixol, an
antipsychotic drug
.
closed-angle glaucoma
An alternative term for acute
glaucoma
.
closed fracture
A type of
fracture
,
also known as a
simple fracture, in w hich the broken
bone ends do not penetrate the over-
lying skin.
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