treat severe cases of
(in w hich abnormal pouches form in
the colon w all); to cut out a cancerous
colon, cancer of
remove a narrowed part of the intes-
tine that is causing a blockage to the
passage of faeces.
Total colectomy is performed to treat
severe cases of
the condition cannot be controlled by
drugs. It may also be performed on
individuals w ith familial polyposis (see
an inherited condi-
growths develop in the colon.
HOW IT IS DONE
In a partial colectomy, the diseased sec-
tion of the colon is removed, and the
ends of the severed colon are joined. A
(w hich allows the
intestine through an artificial opening
in the abdominal wall) may be needed
until the rejoined colon has healed.
In a total colectomy, the whole of the
large intestine is removed, either with
or without the
If the rectum is
(sim ilar to a
colostomy, but using the small intes-
tine) may be performed.
The colon usually functions normally
after a partial colectomy. But in a total
colectomy, the large intestine’s ability
to absorb water from faeces is reduced;
this can result in diarrhoea.
may therefore be required.
used to treat some
(very high lev-
els of fats in the blood). It is also used
to treat diarrhoea in disorders such as
A term that means “ pertaining to the
colon” .The term “colic” also refers to a
severe, spasmodic form of abdominal
pain that occurs in waves of increasing
Another term for
Episodes of irritability and excessive
crying in otherwise healthy infants. The
condition is thought to be due to mus-
cle spasms in the intestines.
A baby that suffers an attack of colic
cries or screams incessantly, draws up
his or her legs towards the stomach,
and may become red in the face and
possibly also pass wind. The baby w ill
not respond to norm al methods of
comforting, such as feeding or cud-
dling. Colic often tends to be worse in
the evenings; the symptoms may also
be made worse by tiredness or stress.
Colic can be very distressing, but it is
harmless. Usually, The condition first
appears at the age of three to four
weeks, and it clears up without treat-
ment by the age of
should seek medical help, however, if
such as fever,
develop, or if they are finding it diffi-
cult to cope with the baby.
usually associated with menstruation.
A group of rod-shaped
inhabit the intestine. Coliform bacteria
and other genera
that are sometimes associated with gas-
One of the
Colistin is used in
rations for eye and skin conditions. It
may also be given orally to destroy bac-
teria in the large intestine, in people
infection. In addition, colistin may be
used in a
in order to treat lung
infections. The drug is used only to
treat infections that are
other antibiotic drugs because it is
toxic and may cause damage to kidney
and nerve tissue.
Inflammation of the
es diarrhoea, usually containing blood
include abdominal pain and fever.
Colitis is a feature of the inflammatory
It may also be associ-
ated with other conditions that cause
inflammation in the colon or rectum,
with cancer (see
colon, cancer of).
addition, it may result from infection
with various types of microorganism,
ria, viruses, or
One form of
colitis may be provoked by
the drugs destroy bacteria that
normally live in the intestine and allow
, a bacterium that
causes irritation, to proliferate.
Investigations into colitis may include
examination of a sample of faeces for
micro-organisms or for obvious or hid-
den blood (see
faecal occult blood test);
of the inside of the colon);
sue sampling) of the inflamed areas or
ulcers; and a barium enema (see
If the cause is an infection, antibiotics
may be needed. Crohn’s disease and
ulcerative colitis are treated with
together with a special diet.
A tough, fibrous
Collagen is the
body’s major structural protein, form -
ing an important part of
connective tissue diseases.
A nonmedical term for a state of pros-
word “ collapse” may also be used to
describe a fainting fit or loss of con-
sciousness. The medical term
refers to a life-threatening con-
dition in w hich the blood no longer
The common name for the
A soft foam or stiffened device that is
w orn around the neck to relieve pain
or give additional support.
A break in the
(one of the bones
of the forearm) just above the wrist, in
w hich the wrist and hand are displaced
backwards, restricting movement and
causing swelling and severe pain. The