CONTRACEPTION
METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
Forms ofcontraception include natural, barrier, hormonal, and postcoital methods.
Most are for use by women. Another option is sterilization, surgery that disrupts part
ofthe male or female reproductive system to render a person permanently infertile.
Female condom
The female condom is placed in the
vagina with the open end extending
just beyond the vaginal opening.
Condom
O p e n e n d
Female condom
Male condom
Condoms should be checked for
holes and air squeezed from the tip
to prevent bursting. They may be
used with a spermicide. On with-
drawal, the rim should be held to
stop the condom slipping off.
IUD in position
An IUD isa small piece of moulded
plasticwith strings attached. Some
contain copper or a progestogen.
The IUD is fitted in the uterus to
stop fertilized eggs implanting.
IUD
Days
98.4
98.2
98.0
97.8
97.6
97.4
97.2
97.0
Diaphragm in position
A diaphragm is a rubber dome held
in place over the cervix by means of
a coiled metal spring in its rim. It
physically prevents sperm from
reaching the cervix.
Temperature method
This natural form of contraception
involves charting a woman’s
temperature to see whether
ovulation hastaken place. The
temperature should be taken at
the same time each day, on waking.
Ovulation precedes a temperature
rise. A rise in temperature for
three daysmeansthe end ofthe
fertile time.
C
Hormone injection
A progestogen is injected by a doctor or nurse
into a muscle in the woman’s arm or buttock.
The hormone is released into her body over a
period of
8
to
12
weeks, after which time the
procedure is repeated.
Hormonal implant
A flexible rod containing a progestogen
hormone is inserted into the woman’s arm,
under the skin, where it releases progestogen
into the blood.
M in i- p ill
The pill
Contraceptive pills contain oestrogen to prevent
ovulation, and/or a progestogen, which changes
the cervical mucus to prevent sperm penetration,
or alters the uterine lining to prevent implantation.
STERILIZATION
This procedure offers an almost
completely safe and reliable form
of birth control; it is usually
irreversible. It does not affect sex
hormones, so a man produces
sperm-free semen and a woman
produces normal eggs that do not
reach the uterus.
Male sterilization
(vasectomy)
The vas deferens
(tube from a testis
to the urethra) on
each side is cut so
sperm cannot enter
the urethra.
Female
sterilization
A laparoscope
(viewing tube) is
inserted, under
anaesthetic, through
the abdominal wall.
An instrument is
passed through it
to cut or seal the
fallopian tubes.
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