COSMETIC DENTISTRY
cortex
The outer layer of certain organs, such
as the brain or kidneys.
corticosteroid drugs
COMMON DRUGS
• Beclometasone •Cortisone
• Dexamethasone •Fludrocortisone
• Hydrocortisone •Prednisolone
• Prednisone^Triamcinolone
A group of drugs that are chemically
similar to
corticosteroid hormones,
w hich
are produced by the
adrenal glands.
WHY THEY ARE USED
Corticosteroid drugs are used as hor-
mone replacement therapy in
Addison’s
disease
and when the
adrenal glands
or
pituitary gland
have been destroyed by
disease or have been removed. They are
also used to treat inflammatory intes-
tinal disorders, such as
ulcerative colitis
and
Crohn’s disease,
and as an urgent
treatment for the inflammation in the
artery supplying the retina that occurs
in
temporal arteritis.
Other uses of corti-
costeroid drugs include the treatment
of
autoimmune diseases
such as systemic
lupus
erythematosus
and
rheumatoid
arthritis,
and the treatment of
asthma,
eczema,
and
allergic rhinitis.
Corticosteroid drugs are also used to
prevent organ rejection following
trans-
plant surgery
and in the treatment of
some types of cancer, such as
lymphoma
or
leukaemia.
In addition,
injections
of corticosteroids may be administered
to relieve pain in disorders such as
ten-
nis elbow
and
arthritis.
POSSIBLE ADVERSE EFFECTS
Side effects are uncommon when cor-
ticosteroid drugs are used in the form
of cream or taken by inhaler. However,
tablets taken in high doses for long
periods
may
cause
diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, osteoporosis, oedema, pep-
tic ulcer, Cushing’s syndrome,
inhibited
growth in children, and, in rare cases,
cataract
or
psychosis.
High doses of the
drugs also impair the
immune system
,
increasing the risk of serious infections
such as
septicaemia
and
tuberculosis;
and
chickenpox
can be life-threatening in
people taking corticosteroids.
Long-term treatment suppresses pro-
duction of corticosteroid hormones by
the adrenal glands, and sudden w ith-
drawal
may
lead
to
adrenal failure,
w hich can be life-threatening. For this
reason, anyone w ho is taking cortico-
steroids,
or w ho has recently taken
them, should always carry a steroid
treatment card and inform a doctor of
the fact before undergoing any other
form of medical treatment.
corticosteroid hormone
Any of a variety of hormones that is
produced by the cortex of the
adrenal
glands
.
There are two main groups of
corticosteroid hormone:
glucocorticoids
(such as
hydrocortisone
,
cortisone, and
corticosterone)
and
mineralocorticoids
(such as
aldosterone
) .
(See also
corticos-
teroid drugs
;
steroid hormones
. )
corticotropin
An alternative name for
ACTH
(adreno-
corticotrophic hormone).
Corti, organ of
See
organ of Corti
.
cortisol
An alternative name for
hydrocortisone
,
a corticosteroid hormone that is pro-
duced by the
adrenal glands
.
cortisone
A
corticosteroid hormone
that is produced
synthetically
Cortisone
is
used
as
a replacement hormone in the treat-
ment of
Addison’s disease.
Side effects of
the hormone include
peptic ulcer
and
bleeding in the stomach.
Corynebacterium
A genus of gram-positive (see
Gram’s
stain
) ,
rod-shaped bacteria. Corynebac-
teria cause disease, including
diphtheria
in humans and various types of infec-
tion in domestic animals and birds.
coryza
A term for the nasal symptoms of the
common cold (see
cold, common
) .
COSHH Regulations
The abbreviation for the Control of
Substances Hazardous to Health Regu-
lations, w hich is one of the major
legal provisions in the UK regarding
the
use
of dangerous
chemicals
in
the workplace.
cosmesis
A term used for any procedures that are
carried
out
to
improve
a
person’s
appearance or to correct a disfiguring
physical defect, such as
cosmetic surgery
,
cosmetic dentistry
,
or the use of make-up
to cover physical flaws.
cosmetic dentistry
Procedures to improve the appearance
of the
teeth
or prevent further damage
to the teeth and/or
gums
.
Cosmetic
dentistry procedures include: fitting an
orthodontic appliance
to
correct
teeth
C
HOW CORTICOSTEROIDS WORK
When given as hormone replacement
therapy (such as in Addison’s disease),
corticosteroids supplement or replace
natural hormones. Large doses have an
anti-inflammatory effect (right) because
they reduce the body’s production of
prostaglandin (natural chemicals that
cause inflammation in damaged tissues
such as an arthritic joint). They also
suppress the immune system by reducing
release and activity of white cells.
I n f l a m e d
s k in
D il a t e d
b l o o d
v e s s e l s
I n c r e a s e in
w h i t e b l o o d
c e l l s
R e d u c e d
in f l a m m a t i o n
B l o o d v e s s e l s
r e t u r n t o
n o r m a l
F e w e r w h it e
b l o o d c e l l s
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