COSMETIC SURGERY
C
that are out of alignment or an incor-
rect bite
(see
malocclusion
); fitting a
crown;
bonding
to
treat
chipped
or
stained teeth;
and
bleaching
of dis-
coloured teeth.
cosmetic surgery
Any operation performed to improve
appearance rather than to cure or treat
disease. Cosmetic surgery techniques
include the removal of skin blemishes
or
dermabrasion; rhinoplasty
to alter the
shape or size of the nose;
face-lifts;
mammoplasty
to reduce or enlarge the
breasts;
body contour surgery
to remove
excess body fat and tissue;
hair trans-
plants; blepharoplasty
to remove excess
skin on the eyelids; and mentoplasty to
alter the size or shape of the chin.
As with any surgical procedure, all
forms of cosmetic surgery carry the
risk of side effects from the anaesthetic,
and of complications arising from the
operation itself.
costal
A term meaning “relating to the
ribs".
costalgia
Pain that occurs around the chest as a
result of damage to a
rib
or to one of
the
intercostal nerves
beneath the ribs.
Damage to an intercostal nerve most
commonly results from an attack of the
viral infection
herpes zoster
(shingles).
The pain is difficult to treat and has a
tendency to persist.
Costen’s syndrome
A term
that
is
sometimes
used to
describe facial pain due to
temporo-
mandibular joint
disorders.
costosternal
A combined term sometimes used to
describe the junction of the
ribs
and
the
sternum
(breastbone).
cot death
See
sudden infant death syndrome.
co-trimoxazole
An
antibacterial drug
that is a combina-
tion of trimethoprim and sulfamethox-
azole. Because of rare but potentially
serious side effects, co-trimoxazole is
now
used to treat certain infections
only in circumstances in w hich they
cannot be treated with other drugs. Its
main use is for the prevention and treat-
ment
of
pneumocystis pneumonia
in
people with
AIDS.
cough
A
reflex
action that helps to clear the
airways of sputum, a foreign body, or
any other irritant or blockage. A cough
is described as “productive" when it
brings up mucus or sputum and “un-
productive" or “dry" when it does not.
CAUSES
Many coughs are due to irritation of
the airways by dust, smoke (see
cough,
smoker’s
) ,
or a viral infection of the
upper respiratory tract (see
cold, com-
mon
;
laryngitis
;
pharyngitis
;
tracheitis
).
Coughing is also a feature of
bronchitis
,
asthma
,
pneumonia,
and
lung cancer
.
TREATMENT
Over-the-counter
cough remedies
are
available, but, in general, they just ease
symptoms. More specific treatment is
directed at the underlying disorder.
coughing up blood
A symptom, also called haemoptysis,
caused by the rupture of a blood vessel
in the airway, lung, nose, or throat.
The coughed-up blood may appear
as bright-red or rusty-brown streaks,
clots in the sputum, a pinkish froth, or,
more rarely, blood alone. In all cases,
medical assessment is needed.
CAUSES
Many disorders can cause haemoptysis.
The most common are infections, such
as
pneumonia
or
bronchitis
;
and
conges-
tion
and rupture of blood vessels in the
lungs due to
heart failure
,
mitral stenosis
,
or
pulmonary embolism
.
A
cancerous
tumour can also produce haemoptysis
by eroding the w all of a blood vessel.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Investigations into coughing up blood
include
chest X-ray
,
and, in some cases,
bronchoscopy
.
In about a third of cases,
no underlying cause is found. Treat-
ment depends on the cause.
cough remedies
Over-the-counter medications used for
treating
a
cough
.
There
are
various
preparations, but the effectiveness of
most is unproven.
Expectorant
cough
remedies are purported to encourage
expulsion of sputum by making it less
viscous (sticky). Cough suppressants,
w hich
control
the
coughing
reflex,
include some
antihistamine drugs
and
codeine
. T h e y
may be helpful in control-
ling coughing at night that prevents
sleep; however, they cause drowsiness
and often cause constipation as well.
TYPES OF COSMETIC SURGERY
There is a range of cosmetic surgery procedures for various parts of the body. The
sites of some of the more commonly performed operations are shown below. The
procedures vary in the permanency of their results and in the likelihood of
achieving a satisfactory appearance.
R h i n o p l a s t y
T r a n s p la n t a t io n o f h a ir -
< 4
A lt e r a t io n o f t h e s h a p e
b e a r i n g s k i n f r o m t h e
b a c k o r s i d e s o f t h e h e a d
o r s i z e o f t h e n o s e
t o b a l d a r e a s
/ "«J "
/
B l e p h a r o p l a s t y
D e r m a b r a s i o n
R e m o v a l o f e x c e s s s k i n
o n t h e e y e l i d s
R e m o v a l o f t h e u p p e r
s k i n l a y e r s t o i m p r o v e
/
A
'
t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f s k i n
b l e m i s h e s
F a c e - l ift
R e m o v a l o f e x c e s s f a c i a l
M e n t o p l a s t y
A lt e r a t io n o f t h e s h a p e
s k i n a n d t i g h t e n i n g o f
t h e r e m a i n d e r t o r e d u c e
o r s i z e o f t h e c h in
w r i n k l e s a n d j o w l s
^
7
\
M a m m o p l a s t y
B o d y c o n t o u r s u r g e r y
B r e a s t r e d u c t i o n b y
1
1
^
R e m o v a l o f e x c e s s
r e m o v a l o f e x c e s s t i s s u e
t i s s u e a n d f a t t o a l t e r
o r b r e a s t e n l a r g e m e n t b y
i n s e r t i o n o f im p l a n t s
n
'V
b o d y s h a p e
200
previous page 199 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online next page 201 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online Home Toggle text on/off