that are out of alignment or an incor-
); fitting a
Any operation performed to improve
appearance rather than to cure or treat
disease. Cosmetic surgery techniques
include the removal of skin blemishes
to alter the
shape or size of the nose;
to reduce or enlarge the
body contour surgery
excess body fat and tissue;
to remove excess
skin on the eyelids; and mentoplasty to
alter the size or shape of the chin.
As with any surgical procedure, all
forms of cosmetic surgery carry the
risk of side effects from the anaesthetic,
and of complications arising from the
A term meaning “relating to the
Pain that occurs around the chest as a
result of damage to a
or to one of
beneath the ribs.
Damage to an intercostal nerve most
commonly results from an attack of the
The pain is difficult to treat and has a
tendency to persist.
describe facial pain due to
A combined term sometimes used to
describe the junction of the
sudden infant death syndrome.
that is a combina-
tion of trimethoprim and sulfamethox-
azole. Because of rare but potentially
serious side effects, co-trimoxazole is
used to treat certain infections
only in circumstances in w hich they
cannot be treated with other drugs. Its
main use is for the prevention and treat-
action that helps to clear the
airways of sputum, a foreign body, or
any other irritant or blockage. A cough
is described as “productive" when it
brings up mucus or sputum and “un-
productive" or “dry" when it does not.
Many coughs are due to irritation of
the airways by dust, smoke (see
or a viral infection of the
upper respiratory tract (see
Coughing is also a feature of
available, but, in general, they just ease
symptoms. More specific treatment is
directed at the underlying disorder.
coughing up blood
A symptom, also called haemoptysis,
caused by the rupture of a blood vessel
in the airway, lung, nose, or throat.
The coughed-up blood may appear
as bright-red or rusty-brown streaks,
clots in the sputum, a pinkish froth, or,
more rarely, blood alone. In all cases,
medical assessment is needed.
Many disorders can cause haemoptysis.
The most common are infections, such
and rupture of blood vessels in the
lungs due to
tumour can also produce haemoptysis
by eroding the w all of a blood vessel.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Investigations into coughing up blood
and, in some cases,
In about a third of cases,
no underlying cause is found. Treat-
ment depends on the cause.
Over-the-counter medications used for
preparations, but the effectiveness of
most is unproven.
remedies are purported to encourage
expulsion of sputum by making it less
viscous (sticky). Cough suppressants,
. T h e y
may be helpful in control-
ling coughing at night that prevents
sleep; however, they cause drowsiness
and often cause constipation as well.
TYPES OF COSMETIC SURGERY
There is a range of cosmetic surgery procedures for various parts of the body. The
sites of some of the more commonly performed operations are shown below. The
procedures vary in the permanency of their results and in the likelihood of
achieving a satisfactory appearance.
R h i n o p l a s t y
T r a n s p la n t a t io n o f h a ir -
A lt e r a t io n o f t h e s h a p e
b e a r i n g s k i n f r o m t h e
b a c k o r s i d e s o f t h e h e a d
o r s i z e o f t h e n o s e
t o b a l d a r e a s
/ "«J "
B l e p h a r o p l a s t y
D e r m a b r a s i o n
R e m o v a l o f e x c e s s s k i n
o n t h e e y e l i d s
R e m o v a l o f t h e u p p e r
s k i n l a y e r s t o i m p r o v e
t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f s k i n
b l e m i s h e s
F a c e - l ift
R e m o v a l o f e x c e s s f a c i a l
M e n t o p l a s t y
A lt e r a t io n o f t h e s h a p e
s k i n a n d t i g h t e n i n g o f
t h e r e m a i n d e r t o r e d u c e
o r s i z e o f t h e c h in
w r i n k l e s a n d j o w l s
M a m m o p l a s t y
B o d y c o n t o u r s u r g e r y
B r e a s t r e d u c t i o n b y
R e m o v a l o f e x c e s s
r e m o v a l o f e x c e s s t i s s u e
t i s s u e a n d f a t t o a l t e r
o r b r e a s t e n l a r g e m e n t b y
i n s e r t i o n o f im p l a n t s
b o d y s h a p e