CRANDALL’S SYNDROME
cough, smoker’s
A recurrent cough that is due to
smok-
ing.
The cough is usually triggered by
the accumulation of thick sputum in
the airways as a result of inflammation
caused by tobacco smoke. Giving up
smoking w ill usually stop the cough,
but it may take time. In general, the
longer a person has been smoking, the
longer it takes for the cough to clear.
Smokers who have a persistent cough
should seek medical advice, particularly
if the cough changes, because smoking
is associated with
lung cancer.
counselling
Advice and psychological support from
health professionals to help people to
deal with personal difficulties. Coun-
selling is used to address problems at
school, work, or in the family; provide
advice on medical problems and sexual
and marital problems; help people to
deal with addictions; and give support
during life crises. Types of counselling
include
genetic counselling,
trauma couns-
elling, and
sex therapy.
In most cases counselling is a one-
to-one
activity,
but it may also
be
carried out in small groups. (See also
child guidance; family therapy; marriage
guidance; psychotherapy.)
Cowden’s disease
An
autosomal
dominant
genetic dis-
order,
also called multiple hamartoma
syndrome,
in
w hich
non-cancerous
growths develop in tissues, including
the skin, mouth, and intestines. Skin
growths
may
include
flat-
topped,
flesh-coloured lesions on the face. M ul-
tiple polyps may grow in the intestines.
People with Cowden’s disease are also
at increased risk of developing certain
cancers, particularly thyroid cancer, col-
orectal cancer, and, in women, breast
and ovarian cancer. There is no specific
treatment for the condition, but affected
individuals are carefully monitored in
order that early signs of these cancers
can be detected.
cowpox
An infection caused by the vaccinia
virus, w hich usually affects cows. This
virus was used in the past to confer
im m unity against
smallpox
.
coxa vara
A deformity of the
hip
in w hich the
angle between the neck and head of the
femur
(thigh-bone) and the shaft of the
femur is reduced, resulting in shorten-
ing of the leg, pain and stiffness in the
hip, and a limp. The most common
cause is a fracture to the neck of the
femur or, during adolescence, injury to
the developing part of the head of the
femur. Coxa vara can also occur if the
bone tissue in the neck of the femur is
soft, a condition that may be
congenital
or the result of a bone disorder such as
rickets
or
Paget’s disease
.
Treatment may
include surgery (see
osteotomy
) .
COX-2 inhibitor drugs
A group of
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs
(NSAIDs) that are less likely to
cause stomach irritation than the other
NSAIDs. One example of a COX-2 inhi-
bitor drug is
celecoxib
.
coxsackievirus
One of a group of
viruses
responsible
for a broad range of diseases. There are
two main types of coxsackievirus: A
and B. The best known of the type A
infections is
hand, foot, and mouth dis-
ease
,
w hich is a common childhood
disorder characterized by blistering of
skin around the mouth, hands, and
feet. Type B viruses can cause serious
illnesses such as
meningitis
,
pericarditis
,
and
pneumonia
.
CPAP
The abbreviation for
continuous positive
airway pressure
.
CPPV
The abbreviation for
continuous positive
pressure ventilation
.
crab lice
See
pubic lice
.
crack
A popular term for a highly potent,
fast-acting form of
cocaine
.
cracked heel
See
heel, cracked
.
cradle cap
A skin condition, common in babies
and most prevalent between the age of
3 and 9 months, in w hich thick, yellow
scales occur in patches over the scalp.
Cradle cap, w hich is a form of
sebor-
rhoeic dermatitis
,
may also occur on the
face,
neck, behind the ears, and in
the nappy area. The reason why cradle
cap occurs is not clear, but the condi-
tion is not due to poor hygiene.
Cradle cap is harmless as long as the
skin does not become infected. It can
be treated by daily use of a simple
shampoo. Alternatively, warm olive oil
may be rubbed into the baby’s scalp
and left on overnight to loosen and
soften the scales, w hich can be washed
off the following day. A m ild ointment
that contains an
antifungal drug
and a
corticosteroid drug
may be prescribed if
the skin becomes inflamed.
Appearance of cradle cap
Thick, yellow, scaly patches occur on the scalp of
babies, most commonly between the age of
3
and
9
months. It is not clear why cradle cap occurs.
cramp
A painful spasm
in a
muscle that is
caused
by
excessive
and
prolonged
contraction of the muscle fibres. The
affected muscle may feel hard and ten-
der. Cramps often occur as a result of
increased
muscular
activity,
w hich
causes a build-up
of
lactic acid
and
other chemicals in the muscles, and
leads to small areas of muscle-fibre
damage. Repetitive movements, such as
w riting (see
cramp, writer’s
)
or sitting
or lying in an awkward position may
also
result
in
cramps.
In
addition,
cramps may follow profuse sweating
because loss of sodium salts disrupts
muscle cell activity.
Massaging or stretching the muscles
involved may bring relief. A drug con-
taining
calcium
or
quinine
may be given
for recurrent night cramps. Recurrent,
sudden pain in a muscle not associated
w ith hardness of the muscle may be
caused by
peripheral vascular disease
.
cramp, writer’s
Painful spasm in the hand muscles fol-
lowing repetitive movements, w hich
makes w riting or typing impossible.
Crandall’s syndrome
A rare
congenital
disorder that runs in
families and is characterized by twist-
ed, brittle hairs, sensorineural
deafness
,
and
hypogonadism
(underdevelopment
C
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