DACRYOCYSTITIS
D
dacryocystitis
Inflammation of the tear sac, usually
resulting from the blockage of the tear
duct. The condition sometimes occurs
in infants if the tear duct has not devel-
oped normally. In adults, it may follow
inflammation in the nose or an injury.
The cause is often unknown.
Symptoms include pain, redness, and
swelling between the inner corner of
the eyelids and the nose. Infection may
occur and cause a discharge.
The obstruction may be cleared by
flushing the tear duct with saline.
Anti-
biotic
eye-drops or ointment are given
for infection. In infants, massaging the
tear sac may clear a blockage. Surgery
to drain the tear sac (dacryocystorhino-
stomy) is occasionally necessary.
Mechanism of dacryocystitis
Inflammation of the tear sac may occur when the
duct through which tears drain away from the tear
sac becomes blocked.
dactylitis
Inflammation of the fingers or toes.
Dactylitis sometimes occurs in people
who have the inherited blood disorder
sickle cell anaemia.
Less commonly, the
condition can be associated with
tuber-
culosis
or
syphilis
infection.
Daktacort
A brand name for a cream containing a
combination of synthetic
hydrocortisone
(a corticosteroid drug) and
miconazole
(an antifungal drug). Daktacort is used
to treat inflamed skin conditions, such
as
eczema
and
dermatitis
,
where a fungal
infection is also suspected.
Daktarin
A brand name for
miconazole
,
an anti-
fungal drug used in the treatment of
athlete’s foot
and other common fungal
skin infections. Daktarin gel is used to
treat oral thrush (see
candidiasis
) .
Dalacin
A brand name for
clindamycin
,
an anti-
biotic that may be applied to the skin to
treat severe
acne
or as a vaginal cream
in the treatment of bacterial vaginal
infections. Due to its toxic side effects,
Dalacin is given as tablets or by injec-
tion only for serious infections, when
other antibiotics cannot be used.
danazol
A drug used for treating
endometriosis
(a condition in w hich fragments of the
uterine lining occur elsewhere in the
pelvic cavity), noncancerous breast dis-
ease, and
menorrhagia
(heavy periods).
Danazol suppresses the
release
of
gonadotrophin hormones
(pituitary hor-
mones that stimulate activity in the
ovaries), w hich in turn reduces the
production of the hormone oestrogen.
This action usually prevents ovulation
and causes irregularity or absence of
menstrual periods.
Possible adverse effects include nau-
sea, rash, and weight gain. Pregnancy
should be avoided while taking danazol.
D and C
An abbreviation for dilatation and cur-
ettage, a gynaecological procedure in
w hich the
cervix
(neck of the
uterus
)
is
dilated, then the
endometrium
(lining of
the uterus) is scraped away and a sample
is removed for analysis. D and C was
once used to diagnose disorders of the
uterus, but has largely been replaced by
hysteroscopy, an endoscopic technique
for viewing the uterus lining or taking
a
biopsy
(tissue sample) from the lining.
Endometrial biopsies can also be taken
using a small vacuum suction device.
dander
Minute scales that are shed from an
anim al’s skin, hair, or feathers. Dander
from humans and pets floats in the air
or settles on surfaces, making up a
large proportion of household dust.
Some people are allergic to animal dan-
der
and
develop
the
symptoms
of
allergic
rhinitis
(hay fever) or of
asthma
if they inhale the scales.
dandruff
A harmless condition in w hich dead
skin is shed from the scalp, often pro-
ducing white flakes. The usual cause is
a rash called seborrhoeic
dermatitis.
Fre-
quent use of an antidandruff shampoo
usually controls dandruff.
danthron
See
dantron
.
dantrolene
A
muscle-relaxant drug
used to relieve
muscle spasm caused by
spinal injury,
stroke,
or neurological disorders such as
cerebral palsy.
The drug does not cure
the underlying disorder, but it often
improves mobility.
dantron
A stimulant
laxative drug
used to treat
constipation in the terminally ill. Con-
stipation is common in these patients
as a side effect of treatment with opioid
analgesic drugs
(painkillers).
Dantron
may colour the urine red.
dapsone
An
antibacterial drug
used to treat
Han-
sen’s disease
(leprosy)
and
dermatitis
herpetiformis.
Combined with
pyrimeth-
amine,
dapsone is also used to prevent
malaria.
The drug may cause nausea,
vomiting, and, rarely, damage to the
liver, red blood cells, and nerves.
Darier’s disease
A rare, progressive skin disorder, also
known as keratosis follicularis, that is
inherited as an autosomal dominant
genetic trait (see
genetic disorders).
The
disease is characterized by the develop-
ment of a number of greasy, pigmented
papules
(raised spots) on the scalp, the
face and neck, behind the ears, and
along the middle of the back.
daydreaming
The conjuring up of pleasant or excit-
ing images or situations in one’s mind
during waking hours.
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