I
DRY SOCKET
harmful drugs may be given, as well as
treatment for any withdrawal symp-
toms.
Social
service
agencies
and
support groups may provide follow-up
care. The success of treatment depends
on the motivation of the affected per-
son. Problems often recur if people
return to the circumstances that origi-
nally gave rise to the drug abuse.
drug eruption
An adverse, allergic reaction (see
allergy
)
that is provoked by the ingestion or
topical application of a particular
drug
.
A drug eruption is usually manifested
as a
rash
on the surface of the skin.
drug-induced disease
Any disorder resulting from the use of
a
drug
.
Examples include drug-induced
lupus erythematosus
,
haemolytic anaemia
(see
anaemia, haemolytic
) ,
and
parkinson-
ism
.
Factors that may increase the risk
of drug-induced disease are age, sex,
individual sensitivity, underlying dis-
ease (especially of the kidneys or liver),
and the combination of drugs a patient
is
taking.
Adverse
effects
associated
with the use of medications may lead
to hospitalization, disability, or even
death. (See also
side effect
. )
drug interaction
The effect of a
drug
when it is taken in
combination with other drugs or with
substances such as alcohol.
drug overdose
The taking of an excessive amount of a
drug, w hich may cause toxic effects
(see
drug poisoning
) .
drug poisoning
The harmful effects on the body that
occur as a result of an excessive dose of
a particular drug.
INCIDENCE AND CAUSES
Accidental poisoning most commonly
occurs in young children. Child-resistant
drug containers have helped to reduce
this risk. In adults, drug poisoning usu-
ally occurs in elderly or confused people
w ho are unsure about their treatment
and dosage requirements. Accidental poi-
soning may also occur in
drug abuse
.
Deliberate self-poisoning may be a cry
for help (see
suicide; suicide, attempted).
Drugs that are most commonly taken
in
overdose
include
benzodiazepine
drugs
and
antidepressant drugs.
TREATMENT
Anyone who has taken a drug overdose,
and any child who has swallowed tablets
belonging to someone else, needs imme-
diate medical attention. It is important to
identify the drugs that have been taken.
Treatment in hospital may involve
washing out the stomach by passing
water through a tube introduced into
the mouth (see
lavage, gastric
).
Charcoal
may be given by mouth to reduce the
absorption of the drug from the intes-
tine into the bloodstream. To eliminate
the drug,
urine production may be
increased
by
an
intravenous infusion.
Antidotes are available only for a few
specific drugs. Such antidotes include
naloxone
(for
morphine
) and methionine
(for
paracetamol
).
COMPLICATIONS
Drug poisoning may cause drowsiness,
breathing difficulty, irregular heartbeat,
and, rarely, cardiac arrest, fits, and kidney
METHODS OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION
How taken
Action
By mouth
Drugs are digested and absorbed from the intestine in
the same way as nutrients. How quickly the tablet or liquid
works depends on how rapidly it is absorbed. This, in turn,
depends on such factors as the drug’s composition, how
quickly the drug dissolves and the effect of digestive
juices on it. Some drugs are inactivated as soon as they
reach the liver and never enter the circulation.
By injection
Drugs given by injection have a very rapid effect and are
given ifdigestive juices would destroy a drug.
Topical
These drugs have a local effect on the parts of the body that
are exposed to them as well as a systemic (generalized)
effect if some ofthe drug is absorbed into the bloodstream
from the site of application.
and liver damage.
Antiarrhythmic drugs
can be given to treat heartbeat irregu-
larity. Fits are treated with
anticonvulsant
drugs
.
Blood tests to monitor liver func-
tion and careful monitoring of urine
output are carried out if the drug is
known to damage the liver or kidneys.
drug psychosis
-------------
D
A mental condition in w hich a person
loses contact w ith reality during or fol-
lowing use of certain drugs (see
drug
abuse
). Drug psychosis may be produced
by drugs such as
amphetamines
,
cocaine
,
LSD
(lysergic acid diethylamide)
and
cannabis
.
The condition may also be
caused by prescribed drugs, particular-
ly by high doses of
corticosteroid drugs
.
Other possible effects associated with
drug psychosis include abnormal behav-
iour,
hallucinations
,
delusions
,
and extreme
emotion, such as excitement or a dazed,
unresponsive state. Treatment involves
withdrawal from the drug and the use of
antipsychotic drugs
to relieve symptoms.
drunkenness
See
alcohol intoxication
.
drusen
Abnormal yellowish deposits that build
up in the
retina
(the light-sensitive layer
at the back of the eye), w hich can lead
to
a
disturbance
of central
vision.
Drusen may be a sign of age-related
macular degeneration
.
dry drowning
See
drowning, dry
.
dry eye
See
keratoconjunctivitis sicca
.
dry gangrene
A type of
gangrene
.
dry ice
Frozen
carbon dioxide
.
Carbon dioxide
changes from a gas to a solid when
cooled, without passing through a liquid
phase. Dry ice may be applied to the
skin in
cryosurgery
,
a freezing technique
that is used, for example, to treat
warts
.
dry mouth
See
mouth, dry
.
dry socket
Infection at the site of a recent tooth
extraction, causing pain, bad breath, and
an unpleasant taste in the mouth. Dry
socket occurs when a blood clot fails to
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