I
DYSURIA
TREATMENT
It is very important to recognize the
problem early to prevent added frustra-
tions. Specific teaching can help an
affected child develop “tricks” to over-
come the deficit. Avoidance of pressure
from parents combined w ith praise for
what
the
child
can
do
is
equally
important in helping progress.
dysmenorrhoea
Pain or discomfort experienced during
or just before a menstrual period.
TYPES AND CAUSES
Primary dysmenorrhoea is common in
teenage girls and young women. It usu-
ally
starts
two
to
three years
after
menstruation
begins, but often dim in-
ishes after the age of 25. The exact
cause is unknown. One possibility is
excessive production of, or undue sen-
sitivity to,
prostaglandins
,
w hich are
hormone-like substances that stimulate
spasms in the uterus.
Secondary dysmenorrhoea is due to
an underlying disorder, such as
pelvic
inflammatory disease
or
endometriosis
,
and usually begins in adult life.
SYMPTOMS
Cramp-like pain or discomfort is felt in
the lower abdomen, sometimes accom-
panied by a dull ache in the lower
back. Some women also have nausea
and vomiting.
TREATMENT
M ild prim ary dysmenorrhoea is often
relieved by
analgesic drugs
(painkillers).
In severe cases, symptoms can usually
be relieved by taking
oral contraceptives
or other hormonal preparations that
suppress ovulation. The treatment of
secondary dysmenorrhoea depends on
the cause of the condition.
dysmorphia
An abnormality in the shape of a body
tissue or structure.
dyspareunia
Painful sexual intercourse
(see
inter-
course, painful
) .
dyspepsia
The medical term for
indigestion
.
dysphagia
The medical term for
swallowing difficulty
.
dysphasia
A disturbance in the ability to select the
words w ith w hich to speak and write
and/or to understand speech or w rit-
ing. It is caused by damage to speech
and
comprehension
regions
of the
brain. (See also
aphasia
. )
dysphonia
Defective production of vocal sounds
in speech, either as a result of disease
or of damage to the larynx (voicebox)
or to the nerve supply to the laryngeal
muscles. (See also
larynx, disorders of
speech disorders
. )
dysphoria
A feeling of disquiet or restlessness.
Dysphoria may be a side effect of cer-
tain drugs, or it may be a symptom of a
psychiatric disorder.
Gender dysphoria is a persistent feel-
ing that one has been born the wrong
sex (see
gender identity
) .
dysplasia
Any abnormality of growth. The term
applies
to
deformities
in
structures
such as the skull and to abnormalities
of single cells. Abnormal cell features
include the size, shape, and rate of
multiplication of cells (see, for exam-
ple,
cervical dysplasia
).
dyspnoea
The
medical
term
for
shortness
of
breath (see
breathing difficulty
) .
dysrhythmia, cardiac
A medical term meaning disturbance of
heart rhythm, sometimes used as an
alternative to arrhythmia (see
arrhyth-
mia, cardiac
).
dystocia
A term that means difficult or abnor-
mal labour
(see
childbirth
) .
Dystocia
may occur, for example, if the baby is
very large, or if the mother’s pelvis is
abnormally shaped or too small for the
baby to pass through. (See also
child-
birth, complications of.
)
dystonia
Abnormal muscle rigidity, w hich caus-
es
painful
spasms,
unusually
fixed
postures,
or strange movement pat-
terns. Dystonia may affect a localized
area of the body, or may be more gen-
eralized. The most common types of
localized dystonia are
torticollis
(painful
neck spasm), and
scoliosis
(an abnor-
mal sideways curvature of the spine),
w hich is caused by an injury to the
back that produces muscle spasm. Gen-
eralized dystonia may be caused by
Scoliosis due to dystonia
Injury to the back may result in dystonia and
abnormal spasm of the back muscles. This
problem, in turn, may lead to
scoliosis
(abnormal
sideways curvature of the spine).
neurological disorders such as
Parkin-
son’s disease
,
or it may be a side effect
of
antipsychotic drugs
.
Dystonia may be reduced by treat-
ment with
anticholinergic drugs
or with
benzodiazepine drugs
.
In
some
cases,
biofeedback training
may
be
helpful.
Injections of botulinum toxin into the
affected muscles are effective in treat-
ing some types of dystonia.
dystrophy
Any disorder in w hich the structure
and normal activity of cells w ithin a
body tissue have been disrupted by
inadequate nourishment of that part.
The cause is usually unknown, but may
be poor circulation of blood through
the tissue, nerve damage or deficiency
of a specific enzyme in the tissue.
Examples of dystrophy include
mus-
cular dystrophies
and
leukodystrophies
.
Corneal dystrophies, in w hich cells lin -
ing the cornea of the eye are damaged,
are a rare cause of blindness.
dysuria
The medical term for pain, discomfort,
or difficulty in passing urine (see
urina-
tion, painful
) .
D
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