It is very important to recognize the
problem early to prevent added frustra-
tions. Specific teaching can help an
affected child develop “tricks” to over-
come the deficit. Avoidance of pressure
from parents combined w ith praise for
important in helping progress.
Pain or discomfort experienced during
or just before a menstrual period.
TYPES AND CAUSES
Primary dysmenorrhoea is common in
teenage girls and young women. It usu-
begins, but often dim in-
ishes after the age of 25. The exact
cause is unknown. One possibility is
excessive production of, or undue sen-
w hich are
hormone-like substances that stimulate
spasms in the uterus.
Secondary dysmenorrhoea is due to
an underlying disorder, such as
and usually begins in adult life.
Cramp-like pain or discomfort is felt in
the lower abdomen, sometimes accom-
panied by a dull ache in the lower
back. Some women also have nausea
M ild prim ary dysmenorrhoea is often
In severe cases, symptoms can usually
be relieved by taking
or other hormonal preparations that
suppress ovulation. The treatment of
secondary dysmenorrhoea depends on
the cause of the condition.
An abnormality in the shape of a body
tissue or structure.
Painful sexual intercourse
The medical term for
The medical term for
A disturbance in the ability to select the
words w ith w hich to speak and write
and/or to understand speech or w rit-
ing. It is caused by damage to speech
brain. (See also
Defective production of vocal sounds
in speech, either as a result of disease
or of damage to the larynx (voicebox)
or to the nerve supply to the laryngeal
muscles. (See also
larynx, disorders of
A feeling of disquiet or restlessness.
Dysphoria may be a side effect of cer-
tain drugs, or it may be a symptom of a
Gender dysphoria is a persistent feel-
ing that one has been born the wrong
Any abnormality of growth. The term
such as the skull and to abnormalities
of single cells. Abnormal cell features
include the size, shape, and rate of
multiplication of cells (see, for exam-
A medical term meaning disturbance of
heart rhythm, sometimes used as an
alternative to arrhythmia (see
A term that means difficult or abnor-
may occur, for example, if the baby is
very large, or if the mother’s pelvis is
abnormally shaped or too small for the
baby to pass through. (See also
birth, complications of.
Abnormal muscle rigidity, w hich caus-
or strange movement pat-
terns. Dystonia may affect a localized
area of the body, or may be more gen-
eralized. The most common types of
localized dystonia are
neck spasm), and
mal sideways curvature of the spine),
w hich is caused by an injury to the
back that produces muscle spasm. Gen-
eralized dystonia may be caused by
Scoliosis due to dystonia
Injury to the back may result in dystonia and
abnormal spasm of the back muscles. This
problem, in turn, may lead to
sideways curvature of the spine).
neurological disorders such as
or it may be a side effect
Dystonia may be reduced by treat-
Injections of botulinum toxin into the
affected muscles are effective in treat-
ing some types of dystonia.
Any disorder in w hich the structure
and normal activity of cells w ithin a
body tissue have been disrupted by
inadequate nourishment of that part.
The cause is usually unknown, but may
be poor circulation of blood through
the tissue, nerve damage or deficiency
of a specific enzyme in the tissue.
Examples of dystrophy include
Corneal dystrophies, in w hich cells lin -
ing the cornea of the eye are damaged,
are a rare cause of blindness.
The medical term for pain, discomfort,
or difficulty in passing urine (see