ultrasound probe is inserted into the
vagina, and it can be confirmed by
(internal examination using
a viewing instrument).
If the diagnosis is made early on,
treatment using the drug
may be considered. In most cases, sur-
minimally invasive surgery,
(which is usually already dead), the pla-
centa, and any damaged tissue at the site
of the pregnancy. If blood loss is severe,
may be necessary. An
affected fallopian tube is removed if it
cannot be repaired.
It is still possible to have a normal preg-
nancy even if one fallopian tube has
been removed, although the chances
Women with two damaged tubes may
in vitro fertilization
to achieve an
A turning outwards of the
the inner surface is exposed. Ectropion
is most common in elderly people, in
whom it usually affects the lower lid
and is due to weakness of the muscle
surrounding the eye.
The condition may also be caused by
the contraction of scar tissue in the skin
near either lid. Ectropion often follows
w hich causes paralysis of the
muscles around the eye.
Even slight ectropion interferes with
the normal drainage of tears by distor-
tion of the opening of the tear duct.
may result, caus-
ing redness, discomfort, and overflow
of tears so that the skin becomes damp
and inflamed. Constant wiping tends to
pull the lid farther from the eye.
Surgery to tighten the affected eyelid
may be required.
An inflammation of the skin, usually
causing itching and sometimes scaling
or blisters. There are several different
types of eczema and some forms are
better known as
(such as con-
Eczema is sometimes the result of an
but is often of unknown cause.
Atopic eczema is a chronic,
superficial inflammation that occurs in
people who have an inherited tendency
towards allergy. The condition is com-
mon in babies. An intensely itchy rash
occurs, usually on the face, in the elbow
creases, and behind the knees. The skin
often scales and small red pimples may
appear. Infection may occur if the rash
is scratched, breaking the skin.
For m ild cases,
petroleum jelly) help to keep the skin
soft. In severe cases, ointments contain-
may be used.
may be prescribed to
reduce itching. Excluding certain foods
from the diet may help to control the
condition. Atopic eczema often clears
up on its own as a child grows older.
usually occurs in adults and is of un-
known cause. It produces round, itchy,
scaling patches on the skin that are similar
to those of
(ringworm ). Topical
corticosteroids may reduce inflamma-
tion, but the eczema is often persistent.
Hand eczema is usually
caused by irritant substances such as
detergents, but it may occur for no
apparent reason. Itchy blisters develop,
usually on the palms, and the skin may
become scaly and cracked.
emollients are used and if cotton gloves
with rubber gloves over them are worn
when coming into contact with irritants.
If the eczema is severe, corticosteroids
may be prescribed.
Stasis eczema occurs in
people w ith
The skin on
the legs may become irritated, inflamed,
and discoloured. The swelling of the
legs may be controlled with compres-
sion bandages or stockings. Application
of ointments containing corticosteroids
may give temporary relief.
To reduce irritation and the risk of
scratching, a soothing ointment should
In this example of atopic eczema, the skin on the
backs of the knees is raw and inflamed.
be applied to the affected areas; these
may then be covered with a dressing
to prevent scratching. Absorbent, non-
should be worn next to the skin; irri-
tants (such as wool, silk, and rough
synthetics) should be carefully avoided.
The abbreviation for expected date of
delivery, the date on w hich a baby is
due to be born. The EDD is calculated as
40 weeks from the first day of the
l). In practice, babies are
rarely born exactly on their EDD.
A term meaning without
tion arising either because the teeth have
not yet grown or because they have fallen
out or been removed by a dentist.
also known as trisomy
18 syndrome, that is associated with
the presence of a third copy of chro-
mosome 18. Edwards’ syndrome affects
about three times as many girls as boys.
Characteristics of Edwards’ syndrome
include a low birth weight, severe
low-set and malformed
ears, a small jaw, hand abnormalities,
opacities in the cornea of the eye, con-
genital heart disease (see
ventricular septal defect
(a hole between the lower chambers of
the heart), and kidney abnormalities.
Approximately half the babies born
w ith Edwards’ syndrome do not survive
beyond the first week of life. Very few
infants live longer than a year. People
with a family history of Edwards’ syn-
before starting a family.
The abbreviation for electroencephalo-
electrical activity of the
A trace of
the activity is displayed on a monitor or
printed out on a moving strip of paper.
In EEG, small electrodes are attached
to the scalp and connected to an instru-
impulses produced by the brain’s activity.
By revealing characteristic wave patterns,
an EEG can help in diagnosing different
types of epilepsy and identifying areas
in the brain where abnormal electrical
activity develops. (See also
encephalography is done