Encephalomyelitis develops as a rare
or, less com-
monly, of other viral infections, such as
or glandular fever (see
It may also occasionally fol-
low vaccination against
Symptoms of encephalomyelitis include
fever, drowsiness, headache, seizures,
or loss of sensation,
and, in some cases,
(a state of
unconsciousness and unresponsiveness
to internal or external stimuli).
Diagnosis is based on the results of blood
produce cross-sectional or three-dimen-
sional images of the body structures);
(a method of recording the electrical
activity of the brain);
(taking a sample of fluid from the spinal
canal for analysis); and, rarely, a brain
(removal of a small sample of
brain tissue for microscopic analysis).
There is no cure for the disease, but
are given to reduce
to control seizures.
The disease is often fatal; those who
survive may suffer permanent damage
to the nervous system.
Another term for the disorder
Any disorder affecting the
cially chronic degenerative conditions.
Wernicke’s encephalopathy is a degen-
erative condition of the brain caused by
a deficiency of vitamin Bj
Hepatic encephalopathy is caused by
the effect on the brain of
have built up in the blood as a result of
It may lead to impaired con-
sciousness, memory loss, a change in
personality, tremors, and
brain tissue shrinks and spaces develop
w ithin it; this leads to severe problems,
such as paralysis and
spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a
disorder contracted by cattle after they
are given feed containing material from
sheep or cattle. The cause of BSE is
believed to be an infective agent that is
known as a
Some cases of variant
in humans have
been attributed to infection with the
prions responsible for BSE, w hich were
probably transmitted to
consumption of meat products.
A noncancerous bone tumour that orig-
inates in cartilage in the
area in w hich new tissue is added as
the bone grows).
The first stage in the
also called registration. In this stage,
information received by one
senses (such as hearing or sight) is reg-
istered and then modified ready for
storage by the brain. The information
can then be retrieved when it is needed.
A type of
in w hich children pass
normal faeces in unacceptable places
after the age at w hich bowel control has
underlying behavioural problem
behavioural problems in children
deposits of fatty
material). Removing the diseased lining
restores normal blood flow to the part
of the body supplied by the artery.
Endarterectomy is used to treat
(in w hich the blood
supply to the brain is seriously reduced)
peripheral vascular disease
blood supply to the limbs is impaired).
IT IS DONE
Endarterectomy is a delicate procedure
that may take several hours. The opera-
tion may be performed endoscopically
) or by open surgery. In
open surgery, the artery is exposed,
clamps are applied, an incision is made,
and the diseased lining, as well as any
thrombus (blood clot) that may have
formed, are removed. The incision is
closed with stitches.
New lining grows in the artery w ithin a
few weeks of surgery. W hen narrowing
of the arteries is widespread (in other
words, it is not confined to a single
arterial reconstructive surgery
have to be performed.
Inflammation of the inner
layer of an
wall. Endarteritis most
commonly occurs as a result of a bac-
terial infection such as
causative infection is treated with
such as penicillin.
(a blood vessel that carries
blood away from the
or the final
of an artery,
communicate with any other arteries.
An end artery is therefore the sole sup-
tissues. If an end artery is damaged and
can no longer supply blood to an area,
the tissues of that area may die. End
arteries are found in the
retina, kidneys, and spleen.
A term applied to a disease or disorder
that is constantly present in a particular
region or in a specific group of people.
for example, has become endemic
in central Africa. An endemic disease
contrasts with an
w hich is
not generally present but occasionally
affects a large group of people.
A type of
(a swelling of the neck
due to enlargement of the
that occurs in certain parts of the world
due to a deficiency of
in the diet.
Iodine is necessary for the production
(T3) and thyroxine (T4). If there is too
little iodine in the diet, the thyroid
gland compensates for the deficiency by
enlarging in order to produce sufficient
amounts of thyroid hormones.
Endemic goitre is rare in the devel-
oped world. It may be treated using
dietary measures alone.
Inflammation of the endocardium (the
the heart), particularly the endocardium
Endocarditis is most often caused by
infection w ith
microorganisms, w hich may be intro-
duced into the body during surgery
(including dental procedures); by
injection using dirty needles; or
through breaks in the skin or mucous
membranes. The organisms travel in the
bloodstream to the heart. As a result, the