END STAGE
ENDOSCOPES
A typical flexible
f i b r e - o p t i c
endoscope
consists of a bundle of light-
transmitting fibres. At one end is the
head (featuring a viewing lens and
steering device) and a power source.
The tip has a light, a lens, and an
outlet for air or water. Side channels
enable attachments to be passed to
the tip. In some endoscopes the tip
may contain a camera that transmits
a picture electronically to a screen. A
rigid endoscope is a straight, narrow
viewing tube that has a light source
attached to it.
SOME COMMON TYPES OF ENDOSCOPE AND THEIR USES
Instrument
Region
Endoscope type
Cystoscope
Bladder
Flexible or rigid
Bronchoscope
Bronchi (main airways ofthe lungs)
Flexible or rigid
Gastroscope
Oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum
Flexible
Colonoscope
Colon (large intestine)
Flexible
Laparoscope
Abdominal cavity
Rigid
Arthroscope
Knee joint
Rigid
Procedure for endoscopy
The endoscope is inserted through a
natural opening (here, the mouth during
gastroscopy); the patient may be sedated.
A tiny camera at the tip ofthe endoscope
relays an image ofthe area under
investigation via a monitor and eyepiece.
Minor procedures, such as biopsy (removal
of a tissue sample for analysis), may be
carried out using very fine surgical
instruments passed down the endoscope.
E
271
previous page 270 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online next page 272 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online Home Toggle text on/off