ENTRAPMENT NEUROPATHY
ENT
The
abbreviation
for
ear,
nose,
and
throat (see
otorhinolaryngology
) .
Entamoeba
A
genus
of amoebae
(see
amoeba
) ,
some of w hich are parasites of the
human digestive tract.
Worldwide, E
ntamoeba histoittica
is the
most serious cause of amoebic disease,
particularly in tropical areas. It is respon-
sible for
amoebiasis
(amoebic dysentery),
a disease in w hich the tissues of the
intestinal lining are destroyed, causing
the formation of
ulcers
in the intestines;
and
abscesses
may form in the liver.
E
ntamoeba
gingivaiis
is found in the
mouths of humans and is associated
with periodontal disease (any disorder
of the tissues that surround and support
the teeth) and
gingivitis
(inflammation
of the gums). E
ntamoeba co ii
is a harm-
less intestinal parasite.
enteral feeding
A type of feeding that involves intro-
ducing
nutrients
directly
into
the
intestines
via
a
tube
passed
either
through the abdominal w all or through
a nostril and down the throat. Food
may be provided in a partially broken-
down form so that it does not need to
be digested before being absorbed in
the intestines. Enteral feeding is a use-
ful method of feeding people with
intestinal disorders, particularly inflam -
matory bowel disorders such as
Crohn’s
disease
.
(See also
feeding, artificial
. )
enteric
Relating to or affecting the
intestine
(the main part of the digestive tract,
w hich extends from the exit of the
stomach to the anus).
enteric-coated tablet
A
tablet
whose
surface
is
covered
with a substance that is resistant to the
action of
stomach
juices. Enteric-coated
tablets pass undissolved through the
stomach into the small intestine, where
the covering dissolves and the contents
are
absorbed.
Such
tablets
are
used
either when the drug might harm the
stomach lining (as may occur with cer-
tain corticosteroid drugs) or when the
stomach juices may affect the efficacy of
the drug (as with sulphasalazine).
enteric fever
An alternative name for
typhoid fever
or
paratyphoid fever
.
enteritis
Inflammation of any part of the
intestine
,
particularly the small intestine. Enteritis
may be due to infection, particularly
giardiasis
and
tuberculosis
,
or to
Crohn’s
disease
.
Enteritis usually
causes
diar-
rhoea. (See also
colitis
;
gastroenteritis
. )
enteritis, regional
Another name for
Crohn’s disease
.
enterobacteria
A group of rod-shaped, gram-negative
(see
Gram’s stain
)
bacteria
that live in
the
human
or
animal
intestine
(the
principal part of the digestive tract,
w hich extends from the exit of the
stomach to the anus).
Some
types
of enterobacteria
live
harmlessly in the intestine. Several other
types, however, cause intestinal diseases,
with symptoms of diarrhoea and/or
vomiting. Certain types are also responsi-
ble for urinary infections such as cystitis,
w hich may occur when bacteria from
the intestines gain access to the urethra.
Examples
of common
enterobacteria
include
E
scherichia
c o ii
,
S
aim on eua
,
T
ersinia
, E
nterobacter
, and S
h ig eiia
.
enterobiasis
The medical term for
threadworm infesta-
tion
of the intestines.
enterocele
A type of
hernia
in w hich part of the
small
intestine
protrudes
through
a
weakened area of the upper vaginal
wall. An enterocele may develop when
the
muscles
in
a
woman’s
vaginal
canal become stretched, damaged, or
weakened by any
of the following:
pregnancy, childbirth, surgery, or aging.
Pelvic floor exercises may help to
improve the condition, but surgery may
be needed to tighten the muscles. In
some cases,
hysterectomy
(removal of the
uterus) may be the best treatment. (See
also
hernia repair
.)
Enterococcus
A genus of gram-positive (see
Gram’s
stain
)
bacteria
of the Streptococcaceae
family. Enterococci are normally found
in
the
human
or
animal
intestine
(the
principal
part
of the
digestive
tract, w hich extends from the exit of
the stomach to the anus).
They rarely cause problems in the
intestine,
but
urinary tract infections
,
caused by enterococci entering the ure-
thra, are common. If the bacteria spread
in
the bloodstream
they
can
cause
septicaemia
(blood
poisoning)
and
infective
endocarditis
(inflammation of
the membrane lining the inside of the
heart). The infections are usually treat-
ed w ith
antibiotic drugs
.
enterocolitis
A combination of
enteritis
(inflamma-
tion of the small intestine) and
colitis
(inflammation of the colon). Possible
causes include inflammatory bowel dis-
orders such as
Crohn’s disease
.
enteropathic
A term used to describe any condition
or organism related to disease of the
intestine
(the main part of the digestive
tract, extending from the exit of the
stomach to the anus). Enteropathic bac-
teria, for example, are species that may
cause
intestinal
disease;
enteropathic
arthritis is joint inflammation associated
w ith
inflammatory bowel disease
.
enteropathy, gluten
See
coeliac disease
.
enterostomy
An operation in w hich a portion of
small or large
intestine
is joined to
another part of the gastrointestinal tract
or to the abdominal wall. For example,
when part of the colon (large intestine)
is brought through an incision in the
abdominal wall to allow the discharge
of faeces into a bag attached to the skin,
the
operation
is
called
a
colostomy
;
when the ileum (the last section of the
small intestine) is used, the procedure
is called an
ileostomy
.
enterotoxin
A type of
toxin
released by certain
bacte-
ria
that inflames the intestinal lining,
leading
to
diarrhoea
and
vomiting.
Enterotoxins cause the symptoms of
cholera
and staphylococcal
food poison-
ing
(see
staphylococcal infections
) .
(See
also
endotoxin
;
exotoxin
. )
Entonox
A brand name for a mixture of
nitrous
oxide
and oxygen used to produce pain
relief without loss of consciousness.
entrapment neuropathy
A condition, such as
carpal tunnel syn-
drome
,
in w hich local pressure on a
nerve
causes muscle pain, numbness,
and weakness in the area of the body
supplied by that nerve.
E
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