ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
the stomach, and into the
duodenum
(the upper part of the small intestine). A
catheter
(a fine, flexible tube) is passed
through the endoscope into the common
bile duct and pancreatic duct. Finally, a
contrast medium
(a substance opaque to
X-rays) is introduced through the cath-
eter to make the pancreatic duct and the
biliary system visible on X-rays.
If a disease or disorder is detected
during the procedure, it can sometimes
be treated at the same time. For exam-
ple, it may be possible to relieve a
blockage due to a gallstone.
erectile dysfunction
Inability to achieve or maintain an
erec-
tion
; commonly known as
impotence
.
erection
The hardness, swelling, and elevation of
the
penis
that occurs in response to sex-
ual arousal or physical stimulation. The
erectile tissue of the penis becomes en-
gorged with blood as the blood vessels
w ithin it dilate. Muscles around the ves-
sels then contract and keep blood in the
penis, thereby maintaining the erection.
erection, disorders of
Conditions in w hich the
erection
of the
penis is disrupted. Such conditions in -
clude total or partial failure to attain or
maintain an erection (see
impotence
) ,
persistent erection in the absence of sex-
ual desire (see
priapism
), and curving of
the penis during erection (see
chordee
) .
ergocalciferol
An alternative name for vitamin D
2
(see
vitamin D
).
ergometer
A machine that measures and records
the amount of physical work undertaken
by the body and the body’s response to
a controlled amount of exercise. An
ergometer makes
continuous record-
ings, both during and after activity, of
heart rate and rhythm (using an
ECG
) ;
blood pressure
;
rate of breathing; and
volume of oxygen taken in from the air.
ergometrine
A drug given after
childbirth
,
miscarriage
,
or
abortion
to reduce the loss of blood
from the
uterus
(womb). Ergometrine
works by causing blood vessels in the
uterine wall to contract, thereby reduc-
ing bleeding. The drug is often given in
combination with
oxytocin
,
w hich stim-
ulates uterine contractions.
ergot
A product of C
laviceps purpurea
, a
fungus
that grows on rye and various other
cereals. Ergot contains poisonous
alka-
loids
(nitrogen-containing substances),
some of w hich have medicinal proper-
ties when taken in controlled doses.
The drugs
ergotamine
,
used in the
treatment of migraine, and
ergometrine
,
given to control blood loss following
childbirth, miscarriage, or abortion, are
both produced from ergot.
ergotamine
A drug used to treat
migraine.
It works
by constricting the dilated blood vessels
around the brain. Side effects of ergota-
mine include nausea, vomiting, muscle
cramps, and abdominal pain. It is now
used infrequently, having been largely
replaced by drugs such as
sumatriptan
.
erosion
The destruction and loss
of surface
tissue
through
physical
or
chemical
processes (see
cervical erosion
;
erosion,
dental
;
gastric erosion
) .
erosion, dental
Loss of enamel from the surface of
a tooth
(see
teeth
)
due to attack by
plaque
acids or other chemicals. The first
sign of enamel loss is a dull, frosted
appearance. As the condition progresses,
smooth, shiny, shallow cavities form.
Erosion of the outer surfaces of the
front teeth is most frequently caused by
excessive intake of acidic fruit juices
and carbonated drinks. Erosion of the
inner surfaces of the molars may be a
result of regurgitation of stomach acid,
as occurs in people suffering from
acid
reflux
or
bulimia
.
Erosion may be com-
bined with, and may also accelerate, the
processes of abrasion (mechanical wear-
ing away of teeth) and attrition (wearing
down of the chewing surfaces). These
problems may result in extensive dam-
age to the teeth. (See also
caries, dental
. )
eroticism
The character and emotive nature of
sexual excitement. Sexual arousal may
be stimulated by erotic thoughts, by
touching the erogenous zones, and by a
variety of other sensations (such as the
look and feel of certain clothes).
eruption
The process of breaking out, as of a skin
rash or a new tooth. (See also
eruption of
teeth
;
eruptive phase
. )
eruption of teeth
The process by w hich developing
teeth
grow from the jawbone, breaking through
the
gum
to project into the mouth.
DECIDUOUS TEETH
Deciduous teeth
(milk teeth) usually begin
to appear at about six months of age. All
20
deciduous teeth have usually erupted
by three years (see
teething
) .
PERMANENT TEETH
Permanent teeth
(which are also known
as secondary teeth)
usually begin to
appear at about six years of age. The first
permanent molars erupt towards the
back of the mouth and appear in addi-
tion
to
the
deciduous
teeth.
The
eruption of permanent teeth nearer the
front of the mouth is preceded by reab-
sorption of the roots of the deciduous
teeth, w hich causes the teeth to become
loose so that they fall out. Eventually,
permanent
teeth
replace
all
of the
deciduous teeth.
Wisdom
teeth
(the
third
molars)
usually erupt between the ages of 17
and 21. In some people, however, they
never appear; in others, the wisdom
teeth are impacted (blocked from erup-
ting) because of insufficient space in
the jawbone (see
impaction, dental
) .
eruptive phase
The phase in the course of a condition
such as
chickenpox
in w hich skin lesions,
for example spots or blisters, break out.
erysipelas
A disorder, caused by a
streptococcal
infection
,
that produces inflammation and
blistering of the face and is associated
with a high fever and
malaise
.
Erysipelas
most often affects young children and
elderly people. Treatment is with
peni-
cillin drugs
.
(See also
cellulitis
. )
erythema
A term meaning redness of the skin.
Disorders in w hich skin redness is a fea-
ture include
erythema multiforme
,
erythema
nodosum
,
erythema ab igne
,
lupus erythe-
matosus
,
and
erythema
infectiosum
(also known as
fifth disease
) .
Erythema can have many causes, such
as
blushing
,
hot flushes
,
sunburn
,
and
inflammatory, infective, or allergic skin
disorders such as
acne
,
dermatitis
,
eczema
,
erysipelas
,
rosacea
,
and
urticaria
.
erythema ab igne
Red, mottled skin that may also be dry
and itchy. Erythema ab igne is caused by
exposure to strong direct heat, such as
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