ERYTHEMA NODOSUM
ERUPTION OFTEETH
The top diagrams show the approximate ages at which
particular deciduous teeth usually appear. The ages at which
specific types of permanent teeth usually appear are shown
in the lower diagrams. Blue denotes erupting teeth; grey
denotes erupted deciduous teeth; white denotes erupted
permanent teeth.
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Deciduous teeth
The full deciduous set (left) consists of eight
incisors, four canines, and eight molars.
They usually start erupting at six months.
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Permanent teeth
The full set of permanent teeth (below)
6 to 10 months: 8 to 12 months:
9 to 16 months:
13 to 19 months:
16 to 23 months: 23 to 33 months:
consists ofeight incisors, four canines,
lower central
upper central
lateralincisors
firstmolars
canines
second molars
eight premolars, and twelve molars.
incisors
incisors
They usually start erupting atsixyears.
6 to 7 years:
6 to 8 years:
7 to 9 years:
9 to 12 years:
first molars
central incisors
lateral incisors
canines
10 to 12 years:
10 to 12 years:
11 to 13 years:
17 to 21 plus:
first premolars
second premolars
second molars
third molars
E
when an individual has been sitting too
close to a fire. The condition is most
common in elderly women.
Dryness and itching can often be
relieved by use of an
emollient
(soothing
cream). The redness fades in time but
may not disappear entirely
erythema infectiosum
See
fifth disease.
erythema marginatum
A pink rash that appears and disappears
spontaneously and that may affect any
area of the body except the face. Erythe-
ma marginatum is a characteristic sign
of
rheumatic fever.
erythema migrans
A red, circular rash that occurs as a
result of infection with
Lyme disease.
Erythema migrans first appears at the
site of a bite from an infected tick.
The rash then expands, over a period of
days or weeks, to form a large, round
patch. Erythema migrans is most com-
m only found on the thighs, groin, or
trunk, or in the armpit.
erythema multiforme
Acute
inflammation
of the
skin,
and
sometimes of the
mucous membranes
(the
thin, moist tissue that lines body cavi-
ties), that is sometimes accompanied by
generalized illness. Erythema multiforme
means “skin redness of many varieties” .
CAUSES
Erythema multiforme can develop as an
adverse reaction to certain drugs or it
may accompany certain viral infections
(for example,
herpes simplex
)
or bacterial
infections
(such
as
streptococcal infec-
tions
) .
Other possible causes of erythema
multiforme are pregnancy,
vaccination
,
and
radiotherapy.
However, about half of
all cases occur for no apparent reason.
SYMPTOMS
A symmetrical rash of red, frequently
itchy, spots erupts on the skin of the
limbs and, occasionally, on the face and
the rest of the body The spots may blis-
The rash of erythema multiforme
The spots of this rash are usually itchy. They may
form into target lesions (concentric rings of different
shades of red around a pale centre).
ter or form raised, pale-centred weals
known as target lesions. People suffer-
ing from
erythema multiforme may
have a fever,
sore
throat,
headache,
and/or diarrhoea.
In a more severe form of erythema
multiforme, known as
Stevens-Johnson
syndrome
,
the mucous membranes of
the mouth, eyes, and genitals are all
affected and become ulcerated.
TREATMENT
Treatment
for
erythema
multiforme
depends on the underlying cause. Any
causative drug treatment w ill be w ith-
drawn and any underlying condition
w ill be treated if possible.
Corticosteroid
drugs
may
be
given
to
reduce
the
inflammation.
People
suffering
from
Stevens-Johnson
syndrome
are
also
given
analgesic drugs
(painkillers) and
may need intensive care.
erythema nodosum
A condition characterized by reddish-
purple, tender swellings on the legs.
Erythema nodosum is usually associated
w ith another illness.
CAUSES
The most common cause of erythema
nodosum is a
streptococcal infection
of
the throat. However, the condition is
also
associated
with
other
diseases,
mainly
tuberculosis
and
sarcoidosis
,
and
281
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