EUPHORIA
essential food factors
Any substances that are essential for
normal functioning of the body but
cannot
be synthesized by
the
body
itself, so must be obtained through the
diet. Examples of essential food factors
are
most
vitamins
and
minerals
and
essential amino acids
.
essential hypertension
Hypertension
(high blood pressure) that
occurs without known cause.
estradiol
The most important
oestrogen hormone
,
w hich is essential for the healthy func-
tioning
of
the
female
reproductive
system and for breast development. In
its synthetic form, estradiol is used to
treat the symptoms and complications
of the menopause (see
hormone replace-
ment therapy)
and to stimulate sexual
development in female
hypogonadism
(underactivity of the ovaries).
estriol
One of the
oestrogen hormones
.
Estriol is
the predominant oestrogen produced
during pregnancy. Synthetic estriol is
prescribed to treat the symptoms and
complications of the menopause (see
hormone replacement therapy
) as well as
to
stimulate
sexual
development
in
female
hypogonadism
(underactivity of
the ovaries).
estrone
An
oestrogen hormone
.
Synthetic estrone
is used to treat the
symptoms and
complications of the menopause (see
hormone replacement therapy
) .
ESWL
The
abbreviation
for
extracorporeal
shock wave
lithotripsy
.
ethambutol
A drug used in conjunction with other
drugs to treat
tuberculosis
.
Ethambutol
rarely causes side effects, but it may
sometimes result in inflammation of the
optic nerve
,
leading to blurred vision.
ethanol
The chemical name for the
alcohol
that
is present in alcoholic drinks.
ether
A colourless liquid that produces un-
consciousness when inhaled. Ether was
the first general anaesthetic (see
anaes-
thesia, general
)
to be introduced.
ethics, medical
See
medical ethics
.
ethinylestradiol
A synthetic form of the female sex hor-
mone
estradiol
.
Ethinylestradiol is most
often
used
in
oral contraceptives
,
in
w hich it is combined with a
progesto-
gen drug
.
Rarely, it is used in
hormone
replacement therapy
.
ethmoidal sinus
One of the air-containing spaces in the
ethmoid bone
behind the nose (see
sinus,
facial
) .
ethmoid bone
A
bone
that forms part of the floor of
the
cranium
(skull)
and
contributes
to the roof of the nasal cavity and to the
orbits (eye sockets). The
olfactory nerves
,
w hich are responsible for smell, pass
through holes in part of the ethmoid
bone called the cribriform plate.
ethosuximide
An
anticonvulsant drug
used in the treat-
ment of absence (petit mal) seizures
(see
epilepsy
). Ethosuximide may cause
nausea and vomiting and, in rare cases,
affects the production of blood cells in
bone marrow (see
anaemia, aplastic
) .
ethyl alcohol
Another name for ethanol, the alcohol
in alcoholic drinks.
ethyl chloride
A colourless liquid that is used as an
analgesic drug
(painkiller). Ethyl chlo-
ride is applied to the skin as a spray
to numb an area before m inor surgery
is carried out or to relieve muscle pain.
The substance is also used in the treat-
ment of
larva migrans
,
a hookworm
infestation.
etidronate, disodium
A
bisphosphonate drug
used
to
treat
bone disorders (see
bone, disorders of
),
such as
Paget’s disease
and
osteoporosis
.
Disodium etidronate works by reducing
the activity of bone cells, thereby halt-
ing the progress of the disease. Side
effects of the drug are generally mild.
etretinate
A
retinoid
drug, chemically related to
vitamin A
,
that is used mainly in the
treatment of severe
psoriasis
(a skin dis-
ease characterized by thickened patches
of red, inflamed skin). Also known as
acitretin, etretinate is also occasionally
used in the treatment of other disorders
that cause excessive skin thickening,
such as
ichthyosis
.
It reduces the produc-
tion of keratin, the protein that forms
the hard, outer layers of the skin.
Etretinate can cause liver damage and
a rise in blood fats. The drug must not
be taken during pregnancy because it
can cause damage to the fetus.
eucalyptus oil
A substance distilled from the leaves of
eucalyptus trees. Because of its aromatic
smell and refreshing taste, it is used as a
flavouring. It is also used in cough and
cold remedies, when it may be applied
as a rub, inhaled as vapour, or incorpor-
ated in tablets.
There is little evidence that eucalyp-
tus
oil
has
any
curative
properties,
although it may relieve symptoms.
eugenics
The
science
that
is
based
on
the
improvement of the human race and
the quality of human life through the
principles of
genetics
.
Modern eugenics
is prim arily concerned with the study
(and, where possible, the elimination)
of genetic disease (see
genetic disorders
) .
Eulenburg’s disease
A rare, nonprogressive, inherited disor-
der, also called congenital paramyotonia,
in w hich there is prolonged contraction
of muscle fibres (see
myotonia
)
when
the patient is exposed to the cold. The
muscles
of the
limbs,
eyelids,
and
tongue may be affected. Eulenburg’s
disease shows an autosomal dominant
pattern of inheritance (see
genetic disor-
ders
) and may be caused by a disorder
of potassium
metabolism
.
eunuch
A man whose testes (see
testis
)
have
been removed or destroyed so that he is
sterile and lacks male hormones. A male
who has been castrated before
puberty
w ill have broad hips, narrow shoulders,
and undeveloped male secondary
sexual
characteristics
(such as a small penis, a
feminine distribution of body hair, and
a high-pitched voice).
euphoria
A state of confident wellbeing. Euphoria
is a normal reaction to personal success,
but it can also be induced by certain
drugs,
including
prolonged
use
of
corticosteroid drugs
.
Euphoria that has
E
283
previous page 282 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online next page 284 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online Home Toggle text on/off