I
FERTILITY DRUGS
and surgery may result in complica-
tions, such as
pneumonia,
that are not
directly related to the fracture site.
FRACTURE OF SHAFT OF FEMUR
Fracture
of the
bone
shaft
usually
occurs when the femur is subjected to
extreme force, such as that occurring
in a traffic accident. In most cases, the
bone ends are considerably displaced,
causing severe pain, tenderness, and
swelling. W ith a fractured femoral shaft
there is often substantial blood loss
from the bone.
The diagnosis is confirmed by X-ray
The
fracture
is
usually
repaired
by
surgery in w hich the fractured ends of
the bone are realigned and fastened
together with a metal pin. Sometimes,
however,
the bone ends can be re-
aligned by manipulation and surgery is
unnecessary After realignment, the leg
is supported with a
splint
and put in
traction
to hold the bone while it heals.
Complications include failure of the
bone ends to unite or fusion of the
broken ends at the wrong angle; infec-
tion of the bone; or damage to a nerve
or artery. A fracture of the lower shaft
can cause permanent knee stiffness.
fenbufen
A
nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory
drug
(NSAID) that is used to relieve pain
and stiffness caused, for example, by
rheumatoid arthritis,
osteoarthritis,
and
gout.
Fenbufen is also used to reduce
pain and to help speed recovery fol-
lowing muscle and ligament sprains.
In common w ith many NSAIDs, fen-
bufen
can
cause
irritation
of
the
stomach lining (see
gastritis)
and may
also cause a rash.
fenestration
A surgical procedure in w hich an arti-
ficial opening, or window, is created in
a sheath or a membrane. For example,
fenestration may involve removal of
part of the w all of a
cyst
to prevent
fluid reaccumulating.
fenoprofen
A
nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory
drug
(NSAID) that is used to relieve pain
and stiffness caused, for example, by
rheumatoid arthritis,
osteoarthritis,
and
gout.
Fenoprofen is also used to treat
muscle and ligament sprains; it reduces
pain and helps to speed recovery.
In
common
w ith
many NSAIDs,
fenoprofen may cause irritation of the
stomach lining (see
gastritis).
fentanyl
An
opioid
analgesic drug that is given
by injection to provide pain relief dur-
ing surgery and to enhance general
anaesthesia
(see
anaesthesia, general
) .
Fentanyl is also used in the form of a
skin patch to control the severe chron-
ic pain of conditions such as cancer.
In common with other opioid drugs,
fentanyl has side effects that include
depressed breathing, constipation, nau-
sea, and vomiting. The use of patches
containing fentanyl may be associated
with local irritation of the skin.
ferritin
A complex of
iron
and protein, found
m ainly in the liver and spleen. Ferritin
is the principal form in w hich iron is
stored in the body
ferrous fumarate
A form of
iron
given in an oral prepa-
ration to treat iron-deficiency
anaemia
.
Ferrous fumarate can cause diarrhoea,
constipation, and abdominal pain.
ferrous sulphate
Another name for
iron
sulphate.
fertile period
The period during a wom an’s
menstru-
al cycle
when
conception
is most likely
to occur. The fertile period is usually
between three and five days in dura-
tion, beginning just before
ovulation
.
Ovulation occurs about 14 days before
a new menstrual cycle begins.
fertility
The ability to produce children w ith-
out undue difficulty. Fertility depends
on both male and female partners.
MALE FERTILITY
A man’s fertility depends on the pro-
duction of normal quantities of healthy
sperm
in the testes (see
testis
) .
This abil-
ity depends on adequate production of
gonadotrophin hormones
by the pituitary
gland, situated at the base of the brain.
Fertility in males is also dependent on
the ability to achieve an
erection
and to
ejaculate
semen
into the vagina during
sexual intercourse
.
Males become fertile at puberty and
usually remain so, although to a less-
ening degree, w ell into old age.
FEMALE FERTILITY
A wom an’s ability to conceive depends
on normal
ovulation
(the monthly pro-
duction of a healthy
ovum,
or egg, by
an
ovary
) and the ovum ’s unimpeded
passage down a
fallopian tube
towards
the
uterus
;
on thinning of the mucus
surrounding the mouth of the
cervix
,
to
enable
sperm
to
penetrate;
and
on
changes in the lining of the uterus that
prepare it for the implantation of a
fertilized ovum.
These processes, in turn, depend on
norm al production of gonadotrophins
by the pituitary gland, and of the sex
hormones
oestrogen
and
progesterone
by the ovaries.
Women become fertile at puberty
and remain so (although to a lessening
degree as they become older) until the
menopause
,
w hich usually occurs bet-
ween 45 and 5 5 years of age. (See also
fertility drugs
;
infertility
. )
fertility drugs
COMMON DRUGS
• Bromocriptine •Cabergoline •Clomifene
• Follicle-stimulating hormone •Gonadorelin
analogues •Human chorionic gonadotrophin
• Luteinizing hormone •Tamoxifen
A group of hormonal or hormone-
related drugs that are used to treat some
types of
infertility
.
In women, fertility drugs may be
given when the abnormal production
of hormones by the
pituitary gland
or
ovaries
(see
ovary
)
disrupts
ovulation
(the release of an ovum, or egg, from
an ovary) or causes mucus around the
cervix
to become so thick that sperm
cannot penetrate it. Treatment with the
drug
clomifene
,
w hich may
continue
over a number of months, can help to
bring about ovulation in women whose
pituitary glands do not produce suffi-
cient hormones for ovulation to occur
naturally. If this treatment fails to pro-
duce ovulation, treatment with follicle-
stimulating hormone (FSH), followed
by an injection of human chorionic
gonadotrophin (HCG), may be given
in order to stimulate ripening of the
ovum and ovulation. (See also
gonado-
trophin hormones
. )
Treatment with fertility drugs must
be monitored carefully in order to avoid
overstimulation of the ovaries. Symp-
toms of overstimulation may include
nausea, vomiting, abdominal swelling,
and the development of massive ovarian
cysts. The condition is potentially life-
threatening.
Fertility drugs are generally less effec-
tive in men but may be used when
abnormal hormone production by the
pituitary gland or testes interferes with
F
303
previous page 302 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online next page 304 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online Home Toggle text on/off