HOWTO USE DENTAL FLOSS
Floss should be used as an adjunct to
toothbrushing to remove plaque and
food particles from gaps between teeth
and around gums. Care should be taken
to avoid damaging the gum margins,
and floss should never be reused.
Break off a generous length of floss (about
cm) and wrap the ends around one
finger of each hand.
Holding the floss taut, guide it gently into
the gap between the teeth until it reaches
the gum line. Then rub the sides of each tooth
with the floss using an up-and-down motion.
in food. The gas consists of hydro-
gen, carbon dioxide, and methane. Air
may be swallowed w hile eating and
enter the stomach or intestine.
Large amounts of gas may cause
(abdominal discomfort), w hich
may be relieved by the passage of w ind
Any species of worm that has a flat-
tened shape. Two types of flatworm are
parasites of humans:
) and trematodes (schistosomes,
used in the treat-
associated w ith condi-
tions such as W olff-Parkinson-W hite
(an abnormality of heart
rhythm). Flecainide is given, in the
form of tablets or injection, to people
w ho are physically resistant to or intol-
erant of other treatments. The treat-
ment is always started in hospital.
Side effects include dizziness, visual
existing arrhythmia or development of
a new type. In rare cases, nausea, vom -
that acts to flex a
example of a flexor muscle is the
in the upper arm, w hich con-
tracts to bend the elbow.
insects and disease
Small fragments that are perceived to be
floating in the field of vision. Floaters
move rapidly with eye movement but
drift slightly when the eyes are still.
They do not usually affect vision.
The majority of floaters are the result
of shadows cast on the
by m icro-
scopic structures in the
(the jellylike substance behind the lens
of the eye). In older people, the vitreous
hum our tends to shrink slightly and
detach from the retina, often resulting
in conspicuous floaters, w hich usually
decrease over time.
of dark floaters, especially if they are
accompanied by light flashes, suggests
floater that is large enough to obscure
vision is usually caused by a
that is more mobile w ithin
the body than usual.
The lowest two pairs of
w hich are
attached to the
at the back but
are not attached to the
breastbone) by cartilage in the same
way as the other ribs.
A technique that is used in
The method of flood-
ing forces the patient to confront the
focus of his or her fear directly and for
prolonged periods. W ith the support
of a therapist, the patient is repeatedly
confronted w ith the object or situation
that he or she is afraid of. The aim is
that, through the process of flooding,
the patient’s distress should eventually
A description of a baby whose muscles
lack normal tension or tone causing
the limbs to be lim p and unresistant to
hypotonia in infants
floppy valve syndrome
mitral valve prolapse
The removal of plaque (see
) and food particles from between
the teeth using soft nylon or silk thread
or tape. Dental floss may be waxed or
unwaxed. Flossing should be carried
out as an adjunct to toothbrushing.
usually used to treat
used in the treat-
(thrush), a fungal
infection that commonly affects the
vagina or the mouth. Although gener-
sometimes cause nausea and diarrhoea.
A term used to describe the movement
w ithin a swelling when it is examined
by touch. It is a sign that the swelling
contains fluid. The term is often used
to describe an
The excessive accumulation of fluid in
body tissues. M ild fluid retention is a
but it disappears with the onset
of menstruation. A more severe case of
fluid retention may be associated with
an underlying heart, liver, or kidney
may be used to
treat fluid retention.