I
FRANCESCHETTI’ S SYNDROME
FRACTURES: TYPES AND TREATMENT
Simple fracture
The broken bone does
not break the skin.
Because organisms do
not come into contact
with the fracture,
infection is rare.
Greenstick fracture
This type usually
occurs in children.
Sudden force causes
only the outer side of
the bent bone to break.
Comminuted fracture
The bone shatters into
more than two pieces.
This fracture is usually
caused by severe force,
such as in a car
accident.
REPAIR OF FRACTURES
There are various ways of repairing
fractures depending on the particular
bone, the severity of the fracture, and
the age of the patient.
Internal fixation
The photograph
(left) shows the
repair of a fracture
in the hip. A metal
pin has been
inserted through the
neck of the femur
and is held in place
by a plate screwed
to the shaft.
External fixation
Immobilization may be achieved by means of
a plaster cast (above) or, in cases such as an
unstable fracture of the tibia (left and above
left), through the use of metal pins inserted into
bone on either side of the break and locked into
position on an external metal frame.
THE BONE HEALING PROCESS
After a fracture, the bone starts to
heal immediately. Any displacement
of the bone ends must therefore be
corrected without delay to minimize
deformity.
1
A blood clot
forms between
the bone ends,
sealing off the ends
ofthe damaged
vessels.
2
Macrophages
(immune system
cells) invade the fracture
site to remove wound
debris. Fibroblasts then
create a mesh to form a
base for new tissue.
3
New bone (callus) is
laid down between
the ends ofthe bones
and over the fracture line.
4
Remodelling
takes place, with
denser, stronger
bone being laid
down. New blood
vessels have
formed.
5
Over a period of
weeks, the bone
returns to its former
shape.
F
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