People who have impaired circulation,
such as those w ith
diabetic vascular dis-
are at increased risk.
The first symptom
of frostbite is a
sensation, followed by
region. The affected skin appears white,
cold, and hard; it may then become
red and swollen.
TREATMENT AND OUTLOOK
Treatment of frostbite involves rewarm-
ing the affected areas by immersion in
warm water (ensuring that it is not too
hot to touch), then applying bandages.
When warmed, m ildly affected tissues
become red, swollen, and sore. If frost-
bite is more severe, blisters appear, and
the area becomes very painful.
If the damage is restricted to the
skin and the tissues that immediately
underlie it, rewarming may result in
Recovery from frostbite damage usually
occurs w ithin about six months, but
temperatures is common. However, fol-
including stiffness, pain, and numbness
may persist indefinitely.
If blood vessels are affected by frost-
(tissue death) may follow.
In such circumstances, amputation may
in w hich an in d i-
vidual rubs his or her body against
another person in order to achieve sex-
ual arousal. Typically, this activity is
carried out w ithin a crowd of people
(such as on a crowded train) where a
man rubs his (clothed) genitals against
a wom an’s buttocks or thigh.
A method of preparing a
men (a sample of tissue removed for
microscopic analysis) that can provide
a rapid indication of whether or not a
tissue is cancerous.
WHY IT IS DONE
Frozen section may be used for the pur-
of determining whether
can also be used to check whether thy-
roid or intestinal tumours are cancerous
and to diagnose
tumours of lymphoid tissue).
HOW IT IS DONE
Frozen section may be undertaken dur-
ing an operation in order that the
results can be used to determine the
appropriate surgical treatment. The sur-
geon removes a sample of tissue and
sends it to the pathology laboratory for
analysis. The sample is quickly frozen
in liquid nitrogen, cut into very thin
sections, placed on a glass slide, and
stained so that the cells can be exam-
ined under the microscope. The entire
process takes about 20 minutes. Infor-
conveyed to the operating theatre.
Stiffness and pain in the
limits norm al movement of the joint.
In severe cases of frozen shoulder, the
shoulder may be completely rigid, and
pain may be intense.
Frozen shoulder is caused by inflam -
mation and thickening of the lining of
the joint capsule. In some cases, it
occurs following a m inor injury to the
occur if the shoulder is kept im m obi-
lized for a long period of time, such as
In many cases, how -
in people over the age of 40. People
are also more sus-
ceptible to developing frozen shoulder.
Moderate symptoms of frozen shoul-
der can be eased by exercise, by taking
steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
relief of pain and inflammation, and by
However, in severe
cases of frozen shoulder,
may need to be injected into the
Manipulation of the joint under gen-
eral anaesthesia can restore mobility.
However, this treatment carries the risk
of increasing pain initially.
Recovery is often slow, and the shoul-
der may remain stiff for some months,
but it is usually back to norm al and
pain-free w ithin two years.
A simple sugar (monosaccharide) that
is naturally present in honey and certain
fruits. Fructose and
are the two
Fructose can be converted into en-
ergy as easily as glucose but, unlike
fructose metabolism is not
For this reason,
fructose can prove an important ele-
ment in the diet of people suffering
An alternative name for
A deep feeling of discontent and ten-
sion as a result of unresolved problems
or unfulfilled needs, or because the
individual’s path to a goal is blocked.
In some people, frustration can lead
An abbreviation for
duced by the
The abbreviation for
failure to thrive
infants and children. A child w ho fails
to grow at the appropriate rate needs
tests to determine the cause.
Pigmented spots that develop on the
(the light-sensitive inner layer at
the back of the eye). The condition
sometimes occurs in people w ho suf-
fer from a severe degree of
A slowly progressing disease that usu-
ally affects both eyes and w hich may
condition is also
Fuchs' syndrome occurs when cells in
the innermost layer of the
transparent front part of the eyeball)
gradually deteriorate. Fuchs’ syndrome
may result in pain and severe visual
There is no preventive treatment for
the disease. In some cases, a corneal
transplant may eventually be necessary
to restore sight.
Fucithalmic eye drops
A brand of eye drops containing
are used for bacterial conjunctivitis.
An episode of altered consciousness
in w hich a person purposefully wan-
ders away from home or work and,