I
FUGUE
People who have impaired circulation,
such as those w ith
diabetic vascular dis-
ease
,
are at increased risk.
SYMPTOMS
The first symptom
of frostbite is a
pins-and-needles
sensation, followed by
complete
numbness
in
the
affected
region. The affected skin appears white,
cold, and hard; it may then become
red and swollen.
TREATMENT AND OUTLOOK
Treatment of frostbite involves rewarm-
ing the affected areas by immersion in
warm water (ensuring that it is not too
hot to touch), then applying bandages.
When warmed, m ildly affected tissues
become red, swollen, and sore. If frost-
bite is more severe, blisters appear, and
the area becomes very painful.
If the damage is restricted to the
skin and the tissues that immediately
underlie it, rewarming may result in
complete
recovery
of
the
tissues.
Recovery from frostbite damage usually
occurs w ithin about six months, but
some
lasting
sensitivity
to
extreme
temperatures is common. However, fol-
lowing
severe
frostbite,
symptoms
including stiffness, pain, and numbness
may persist indefinitely.
If blood vessels are affected by frost-
bite,
gangrene
(tissue death) may follow.
In such circumstances, amputation may
be necessary.
frottage
A sexual
deviation
in w hich an in d i-
vidual rubs his or her body against
another person in order to achieve sex-
ual arousal. Typically, this activity is
carried out w ithin a crowd of people
(such as on a crowded train) where a
man rubs his (clothed) genitals against
a wom an’s buttocks or thigh.
frozen section
A method of preparing a
biopsy
speci-
men (a sample of tissue removed for
microscopic analysis) that can provide
a rapid indication of whether or not a
tissue is cancerous.
WHY IT IS DONE
Frozen section may be used for the pur-
pose
of determining whether
breast
lumps
are
cancerous. The
technique
can also be used to check whether thy-
roid or intestinal tumours are cancerous
and to diagnose
lymphomas
(cancerous
tumours of lymphoid tissue).
HOW IT IS DONE
Frozen section may be undertaken dur-
ing an operation in order that the
results can be used to determine the
appropriate surgical treatment. The sur-
geon removes a sample of tissue and
sends it to the pathology laboratory for
analysis. The sample is quickly frozen
in liquid nitrogen, cut into very thin
sections, placed on a glass slide, and
stained so that the cells can be exam-
ined under the microscope. The entire
process takes about 20 minutes. Infor-
mation
about
the
sample
is
then
conveyed to the operating theatre.
frozen shoulder
Stiffness and pain in the
shoulder
that
limits norm al movement of the joint.
In severe cases of frozen shoulder, the
shoulder may be completely rigid, and
pain may be intense.
CAUSES
Frozen shoulder is caused by inflam -
mation and thickening of the lining of
the joint capsule. In some cases, it
occurs following a m inor injury to the
shoulder.
Frozen
shoulder
can
also
occur if the shoulder is kept im m obi-
lized for a long period of time, such as
following a
stroke
.
In many cases, how -
ever,
the
disorder
develops
for
no
apparent reason.
The
condition
is
more
common
in people over the age of 40. People
with
diabetes mellitus
are also more sus-
ceptible to developing frozen shoulder.
TREATMENT
Moderate symptoms of frozen shoul-
der can be eased by exercise, by taking
analgesic drugs
(painkillers) and
non-
steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
for the
relief of pain and inflammation, and by
applying
ice-packs
.
However, in severe
cases of frozen shoulder,
corticosteroid
drugs
may need to be injected into the
affected joint.
Manipulation of the joint under gen-
eral anaesthesia can restore mobility.
However, this treatment carries the risk
of increasing pain initially.
OUTLOOK
Recovery is often slow, and the shoul-
der may remain stiff for some months,
but it is usually back to norm al and
pain-free w ithin two years.
fructose
A simple sugar (monosaccharide) that
is naturally present in honey and certain
fruits. Fructose and
glucose
are the two
components of
sucrose
(table sugar).
Fructose can be converted into en-
ergy as easily as glucose but, unlike
glucose,
fructose metabolism is not
dependent on
insulin
.
For this reason,
fructose can prove an important ele-
ment in the diet of people suffering
from
diabetes mellitus
.
frusemide
An alternative name for
furosemide
,
a
diuretic drug.
frustration
A deep feeling of discontent and ten-
sion as a result of unresolved problems
or unfulfilled needs, or because the
individual’s path to a goal is blocked.
In some people, frustration can lead
to
regression
(childlike
behaviour),
aggression
,
or
depression
.
FSH
An abbreviation for
follicle-stimulating
hormone
,
a
gonadotrophin hormone
pro-
duced by the
pituitarygland
.
FTT
The abbreviation for
failure to thrive
in
infants and children. A child w ho fails
to grow at the appropriate rate needs
tests to determine the cause.
Fuchs’ spots
Pigmented spots that develop on the
retina
(the light-sensitive inner layer at
the back of the eye). The condition
sometimes occurs in people w ho suf-
fer from a severe degree of
myopia
(shortsightedness).
Fuchs’ syndrome
A slowly progressing disease that usu-
ally affects both eyes and w hich may
be
hereditary. The
condition is also
known
as
Fuchs’
corneal
dystrophy.
Fuchs' syndrome occurs when cells in
the innermost layer of the
cornea
(the
transparent front part of the eyeball)
gradually deteriorate. Fuchs’ syndrome
may result in pain and severe visual
impairment.
There is no preventive treatment for
the disease. In some cases, a corneal
transplant may eventually be necessary
to restore sight.
Fucithalmic eye drops
A brand of eye drops containing
fusidic
acid
,
an
antibiotic drug.
The
drops
are used for bacterial conjunctivitis.
fugue
An episode of altered consciousness
in w hich a person purposefully wan-
ders away from home or work and,
F
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