I
FYBOGEL
FUNGAL DISEASES
The skin, genitals, and nails are
common sites of fungal infection.
Examples include
t i n e a
(ringworm) and
c a n d i d i a s i s
(thrush). Fungi may rarely
infect the lungs and other internal
organs, causing a more serious
disease. They may also cause allergic
lung disease, such as farmer’s lung.
Fungal nail infection
This condition can affect toenails or finger nails.
It is liable to last for years. Antifungal medications
are of benefit to some people.
Colony of fungal cells
The microscope photograph (left) shows a colony
of yeast cells in a skin fragment.
FUNGAL GROWTH
I
Many fungal colonies
originate from spores that
have been carried in the air
and have settled at a suitable
site for growth.
2
If nutrients are available and
other conditions (such as
temperature) are favourable, a
spore starts to divide.
3
The cells of many fungi
divide to form a network
consisting of branched chains of
tubular filaments called hyphae.
4
Eventually, a colony may
start to form its own
spores. These spores may be
carried to new sites to set up
new growths.
F
funny-bone
A popular term for the small area at
the back of the
elbow
where the ulnar
nerve passes over a prominence of the
humerus
(upper-arm bone).
A blow to the nerve causes acute
pain, numbness, and a tingling sensa-
tion in the forearm and hand.
furosemide
A
diuretic drug
used in the treatment of
oedema
(the accumulation of fluid in
body tissues) and
heart failure
.
Furos-
emide belongs to a group of drugs
known as loop diuretics, w hich cause a
rapid, temporary increase in the out-
put of urine. W hen given by injection,
furosemide has a very rapid effect; it
may therefore be used in emergencies
to relieve
pulmonary oedema
(a buildup
of fluid around the lungs).
Furosemide increases the rate at w hich
potassium is excreted from the body,
w hich may cause headaches, dizziness,
and muscle cramps. In order to prevent
excessive potassium loss, doctors fre-
quently give potassium supplements, or
alternatively
potassium-sparing
diur-
etics, in combination with the drug.
furuncle
An alternative term for a
boil
.
fusidic acid
A type of
antibiotic drug
that is used in
the treatment of a variety of bacterial
infections that are resistant to
penicillin
drugs
.
Fusidic acid is commonly used
in preparations applied to localized
areas of skin in conditions such as
impetigo. The drug is also used in eye
and ear preparations.
FVC
The abbreviation for
forced vital capacity
.
(See also
forced expiratory volume.)
Fybogel
A brand name for a bulk-form ing
laxa-
tive drug.
327
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