Wet gangrene develops when an area of
dry gangrene, or a wound, becomes
and oozing pus may occur around the
blackened tissues. The gangrene spreads,
and the area gives off an unpleasant
smell. A virulent type called
is due to a bacterium that destroys mus-
cles and produces a foul-smelling gas.
Treatment of dry gangrene involves at-
tempting to improve the circulation to
the affected area before the tissues die.
can prevent wet gan-
grene from setting in.
To treat wet gangrene,
the affected part and the surrounding
tissue may be necessary.
in w hich an
individual seeks, either consciously or
unconsciously, to mislead others about
his or her mental state and may sim u-
late symptoms of
the vaginal discharge of women with
A liquid preparation to wash and freshen
the mouth and throat. Some gargles
to relieve sore throats.
Another name for
w hich the facial features are coarsened.
A mixture of
that is mainly used for temporary pain
relief in emergencies or during
A rare but life-threatening
(tissue death), usually due to
infection by the bacterium C
i o s t r i d i u m
p e r f r i n g e n s
environments, where there is
little or no oxygen, such as dying tissue.
Gas gangrene develops suddenly and
normally occurs at the site of a recent,
serious wound. The bacteria multiply in
the damaged tissue, producing toxins
that release a gas, and spread incredibly
rapidly to healthy tissue.
The affected area is swollen and pain-
causing a crackling sensation if the area
is pressed. Other symptoms that develop
early in the infection include sweating,
fever, and anxiety. If left untreated, the
condition may lead to
and even death.
destroy the bacteria at
the edges of the gangrene, but all of the
diseased tissue needs to be surgically
of an affected limb
may be required, in some cases, to con-
trol the spread of infection.
in w hich the patient is
exposed to oxygen at high pressure,
may help to kill the bacteria.
Removal of the whole
gastrectomy) or of part of the stomach
(partial gastrectomy). Total gastrectomy
is used to treat some
Partial gastrectomy used to be a treat-
(ulcers of the
stomach or duodenum) but has largely
been replaced by drug treatment.
A person who has had a gastrectomy
may experience fullness and discomfort
after meals. Possible postoperative com-
plications include the regurgitation or
w hich may lead to
inflammation of the stomach or the
(sweating, nausea, dizziness,
and weakness after meals, due to food
leaving the stomach too quickly). Other
reduced ability to absorb nutrients),
w hich may lead to
(loss of bone density). After a total
gastrectomy, patients cannot absorb vit-
and need injections of the
vitamin for the rest of their lives.
A break in the surface layer of the mem-
brane that lines the
erosions occur in some cases of
(inflammation of the stomach lining).
Many result from ingestion of irritants
The physical stress of serious illness,
injuries such as
or major surgery
may also cause erosions to develop.
Often there are no symptoms, but
erosions may bleed, causing
or blood in the faeces. Persistent
loss of blood may lead to
(inspection and examination
of the stomach via a flexible viewing
instrument; an endoscope).
They usually heal in a few days when
treated with antacid drugs, H 2-receptor
antagonists, or proton pump inhibitors
block the production of stomach acid
are often given to people who are at
high risk of developing erosions, such
as those receiving
A raw area in the
by a breach of the lining (see
) that penetrates into the tissues. A
gastric ulcer is a type of
(ulcer of the stomach or duodenum).
produced by cells in the
lining. Gastrin causes the stom-
ach to produce more acid and helps to
propel food through the digestive tract.
to irritation of the tissues. The condition
Acute gastritis may be due to infection
w ith the H
e e i c o b a c t e r
p y e o r i
It may also be caused by drugs, usually
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
or severe physical
stress, such as
or major surgery.
Chronic gastritis is most often due to
p y e o r i
infection but may be due to
prolonged irritation by
that damages the stomach lining (see
or by degenera-
tion of the lining with age.
Symptoms include discomfort in the
upper abdomen, nausea, and vomiting.
In acute gastritis, the faeces may be
blackened by blood lost from the stom-
in chronic gastritis,
slow blood loss may lead to anaemia
in symptoms such as pallor, tiredness
Diagnosis of gastritis is made through
(examination of the stomach
lining with a flexible viewing instru-
ment), during w hich a
of a tissue sample for analysis) may be
may be prescribed to treat H.
p y e o r i
infection. Anaemia w ill be treated.
There is no treatment for gastritis due
to an autoimmune disorder, however.