INFECTIOUS DISEASE
INFECTIOUS DISEASES: BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
Disease
Infective agent
Transmission
Incubation period
Symptoms
Treatment
Gonorrhoea
N
eisseria
G O N O R R H O E A E
Sexual contact;
mother to baby at
delivery
2-6 days
Pain on passing urine;
discharge; pain in abdomen
Penicillin; ampicillin;
other antibiotics for
resistant forms
Meningitis,
bacterial
N e i s s e r ia
m e n i n g i t i d i s
(meningococcus);
S t r e p t o c o c c u s
p n e u m o n i a e ;
others
Airborne droplets
Less than 3 weeks;
may be less than
48 hours
High fever; stiff neck; nausea;
confusion; purple rash that
does not fade (in
meningococcus)
Immediate treatment
with antibiotics
Pertussis
(whooping
cough)
B o r d e t e l l a
p e r t u s s i s
Airborne droplets
1-2 weeks
Runny nose and moderate
fever; slight cough leading to
characteristic cough spasms
and vomiting
Erythromycin to prevent
spread of infection; small
children may require
hospital admission
Pneumonia
S t r e p t o c o c c u s
p n e u m o n i a e ;
M y c o p l a s m a
p n e u m o n i a e ;
others
Airborne droplets
1-3 weeks
Cough; fever; chest pain;
shortness of breath
Antibiotics
Tuberculosis
M y c o b a c t e r i u m
t u b e r c u l o s i s
Airborne
transmission;
unpasteurized
cows’ milk
4-12 weeks for
primary infection;
disease maybe
reactivated later in life
Fever; malaise; weight loss;
cough; shortness of breath;
chest pain
Multiple antituberculous
drugs for several months
Typhoid fever
S a l m o n e l l a t y p h i
Food or water
contaminated with
infected faeces
1-2 weeks,
sometimes longer
Headache; lethargy;
constipation; very high,
prolonged fever; dry cough
Antibiotics
INFECTIOUS DISEASES: CHLAMYDIAL INFECTIONS
Disease
Infective agent
Transmission
Incubation period
Symptoms
Treatment
Nongonococcal
urethritis
(in men) /
Chlamydia
(in women)
C h l a m y d ia
t r a c h o m a t i s
Sexual contact
1-4 weeks
Nongonococcal urethritis: pain
on passing urine; watery
mucous discharge
Nonspecific genital infection:
often no symptoms
Antibiotics
Psittacosis
C h l a m y d ia
rsittaci
Inhalation of dust
containing faeces
from infected birds
1-3 weeks
Flulike and feverish symptoms;
shortness of breath
Antibiotics
INFECTIOUS DISEASES: RICKETTSIAL INFECTIONS
Disease
Infective agent
Transmission
Incubation period
Symptoms
Treatment
Q fever
C o x ie l l a
b u r n e t t i
Inhalation of
infected dust
2-4 weeks
Sudden onset of fever and
sweating; cough; chest pains;
headache
Antibiotics
Epidemic
typhus
R i c k e t t s i a
p r o w a z e k i i
Bite from infected
body louse
About 7 days
Severe headache; high fever;
muscle aches; weakness; rash
Antibiotics
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