INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS
I
INFECTIOUS DISEASES: FUNGAL INFECTIONS
Disease
Infective agent
Transmission
Incubation period
Symptoms
Treatment
Tinea
(ringworm)
T
r i c h o p h y t o n
r u b r u m
;
M
i c r o s p o r u m
c a n i s
; others
Direct contactwith
infected humans or
animals
Variable
Itchy skin patches; patchy hair
loss; cracking skin between
toes
Topical or systemic
antifungal drugs
Meningitis,
fungal
C
r y p t o c o c c u s
n e o f o r m a n s
Inhalation of fungus
from pigeon
droppings
Unknown
Headache; stiff neck;
photophobia
Antifungal drugs
INFECTIOUS DISEASES: PROTOZOAL INFECTIONS
Disease
Infective agent
Transmission
Incubation period
Symptoms
Treatment
Amoebiasis
E
n t a m o e b a
h i s t o l y t i c a
Food or water
contaminated by
faeces
A few weeks to
manyyears
Severe, sometimes bloody
diarrhoea
Antiprotozoal drugs
(such as metronidazole)
Giardiasis
G
i a r d i a l a m b l i a
Food or water
contaminated by
faeces; sexual
contact
7-40 days
Diarrhoea; abdominal
discomfort; bloating
Antiprotozoal drugs
(such as metronidazole)
Malaria
P
l a s m o d i u m
f a l c i p a r u m
;
P
l a s m o d i u m
vivax
;
others
Bite from infected
mosquito
10-40 days
Chills; high fever; sweating;
headache; fatigue
Various drugs (such as
chloroquine)
a n t i b i o t i c s . T h e m
a j o r i t y o f v i r a l i n f e c -
t i o n s c a n n o t b e c o m b a t e d w i t h d r u g s .
T h e
w i d e s p r e a d
i n c i d e n c e
o f
H I V ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y
i n
d e v e l o p i n g
c o u n t r i e s ,
p o s e s
a
g r e a t
t h r e a t
t o
w o r l d
h e a l t h ;
H I V i n f e c t i o n a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e r i s k o f
a s u r g e i n
l e s s
c o m
m o n i n f e c t i o n s i n
t h o s e
p e o p l e
w h o s e
i m m u n e
s y s t e m s
a r e c o m p r o m i s e d .
in fe c tio u s m o n o n u c le o s is
S e e
m o n o n u c l e o s i s , i n f e c t i o u s .
in fe c tiv e a rth ritis
A n a l t e r n a t i v e t e r m f o r s e p t i c
a r t h r i t i s .
in fe c tiv e e n d o c a rd itis
S e e
e n d o c a r d i t i s .
in fe rio r
A n
a n a t o m i c a l
t e r m
t h a t
i s
u s e d
t o
d e s c r i b e t h e l o w e r o f t w o b o d y s t r u c -
t u r e s , s u r f a c e s , o r o r g a n s .
in fe rio rity c o m p le x
A n e u r o t i c s t a t e o f m
i n d t h a t d e v e l o p s
b e c a u s e
o f r e p e a t e d h u r t s
o r
f a i l u r e s
i n t h e p a s t . I n f e r i o r i t y c o m
p l e x a r i s e s
f r o m
a
c o n f l i c t
b e t w e e n
t h e
p o s i t i v e
w i s h
t o
b e
r e c o g n i z e d
a s
s o m e o n e
w o r t h w h i l e
a n d t h e h a u n t i n g
f e a r
o f
f r u s t r a t i o n a n d f a i l u r e .
A t t e m p t s t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e s e n s e
o f w o r t h l e s s n e s s m a y t a k e t h e f o r m o f
a g g r e s s i o n
a n d
v i o l e n c e ,
o r
a n
o v e r -
z e a l o u s
i n v o l v e m e n t i n
a c t i v i t i e s .
( S e e
a l s o
s u p e r i o r i t y c o m p l e x
.)
in fe rt ility
T h e
i n a b i l i t y
t o
p r o d u c e
o f f s p r i n g ,
w h i c h
m a y
r e s u l t
f r o m
a
p r o b l e m
i n
e i t h e r t h e m a l e o r t h e f e m a l e r e p r o d u c -
t i v e s y s t e m , o r , i n m a n y c a s e s , f r o m a
c o m
b i n a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s i n b o t h .
MALE INFERTILITY
T h e m a i n c a u s e o f m a l e i n f e r t i l i t y i s a
l a c k o f h e a l t h y s p e r m . I n
a z o o s p e r m i a
,
n o s p e r m a r e p r o d u c e d ; i n
o l i g o s p e r m i a
o n l y a f e w s p e r m a r e p r o d u c e d . I n s o m e
c a s e s , s p e r m a r e p r o d u c e d b u t a r e m
a l -
f o r m
e d o r s h o r t - l i v e d .
T h e u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e
o f t h e s e p r o b -
l e m s m a y b e b l o c k a g e o f t h e s p e r m a t i c
t u b e s o r d a m a g e t o t h e s p e r m a t i c d u c t s ,
u s u a l l y d u e t o a
s e x u a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d i n f e c -
t i o n
.
A b n o r m a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t e s t e s
d u e t o a n e n d o c r i n e d i s o r d e r ( s e e
h y p o g -
o n a d i s m
)
o r
d a m a g e
t o
t h e
t e s t e s
b y
o r c h i t i s
m a y a l s o c a u s e d e f e c t i v e s p e r m .
S m o k i n g ,
t o x i n s ,
o r v a r i o u s
d r u g s
c a n
l o w e r t h e s p e r m c o u n t
( t h e n u m b e r o f
s p e r m c e l l s i n a s a m p l e o f s e m e n ) . O t h e r
c a u s e s a r e d i s o r d e r s a f f e c t i n g e j a c u l a t i o n
( s e e
e j a c u l a t i o n , d i s o r d e r s o f
).
R a r e l y , m a l e
i n f e r t i l i t y i s d u e t o a c h r o m o s o m a l a b n o r -
m a l i t y s u c h a s
K l i n e f e l t e r ’s s y n d r o m e
,
o r a
g e n e t i c d i s e a s e , s u c h a s
c y s t i c f i b r o s i s
.
FEMALE INFERTILITY
T h e
m o s t
c o m
m
o n
c a u s e
o f
f e m a l e
i n f e r t i l i t y
i s
f a i l u r e
t o
o v u l a t e .
O t h e r
c a u s e s a r e b l o c k e d , d a m a g e d o r a b s e n t
f a l l o p i a n t u b e s
;
d i s o r d e r s o f t h e u t e r u s ,
s u c h a s
f i b r o i d s
a n d
e n d o m e t r i o s i s
;
p r o b -
l e m s
w i t h
f e r t i l i z a t i o n
;
o r
d i f f i c u l t i e s
w i t h
i m p l a n t a t i o n
i n
t h e
u t e r u s
( s e e
i m p l a n t a t i o n , e g g
).
I n f e r t i l i t y a l s o o c c u r s
i f t h e w o m
a n ’s c e r v i c a l m u c u s c o n t a i n s
a n t i b o d i e s t h a t k i l l o r i m
m
o b i l i z e h e r
p a r t n e r ’s s p e r m . R a r e l y , a c h r o m o s o m a l
a b n o r m a l i t y , s u c h a s
T u r n e r ’s s y n d r o m e
,
i s
t h e c a u s e o f a w o m
a n ’s i n f e r t i l i t y .
INVESTIGATION
T h e i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n p e r f o r m e d f o r
m a l e i n f e r t i l i t y i s
s e m e n a n a l y s i s
,
w h i c h
422
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