LIVE VACCINE
L
LIVER-FUNCTION TESTS
Test
Significance
Serum bilirubin
Bilirubin is the yellow breakdown product of red blood cells that is
passed to the liver and excreted in bile. It is this substance that gives
the yellow colour to the skin in jaundice. High blood bilirubin levels
may indicate excessive breakdown of red blood cells, obstruction to
bile flow, defective processing of bile by the liver, or Gilbert’s syndrome.
Serum albumin
Albumin is one ofthe main proteins in blood. Made by the liver, one of
its actions is to hold fluid inside the blood vessels. A low level is found
in many chronic liver disorders and is often associated with ascites and
ankle oedema (fluid collection in the abdomen and around the ankles).
Serum alkaline
phosphatase
Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in the cells that line the bile
ducts and also in other tissues such as bone. The blood level ofthis
enzyme rises when there is obstruction to the flow of bile (cholestasis).
Gamma-glutamyl
transpeptidase
An enzyme present in liver cells. When the flow of bile is obstructed,
the blood level ofthis enzyme is raised, along with a raised level of
alkaline phosphatase. A gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase level raised
in isolation is related to alcohol intake. its measurement can also be
used as a screening testfor glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency.
Serum
aminotransferases
(transaminases)
The aminotransferases are enzymes released from liver cells into the
blood when the liver cells are damaged. The levels will be raised in any
condition that damages liver cells, including poisoning, and acute and
chronic hepatitis.
Prothrombin time
A normal result in this test of blood clotting depends on the presence
in the blood ofa protein made by the liver from a fat-soluble vitamin,
vitamin K. The test result can be abnormal in two types of disorder:
when the protein is not made because of liver cell damage, and when
there is a blockage to bile flow in the liver, causing a lack of bile in the
intestines (which interferes with fat and vitamin K absorption).
HOW IT IS DONE
D u r i n g
t h i s
p r o c e d u r e ,
t h e
l i v e r ,
t h e
g a l l b l a d d e r
,
a n d
p o r t i o n s
o f t h e
c o n -
n e c t e d
b l o o d
a n d
b i l e
v e s s e l s
a r e
r e m o v e d . T h e d o n o r o r g a n s a n d b l o o d
v e s s e l s a r e t h e n c o n n e c t e d t o t h e r e c i p i -
e n t ’s v e s s e l s .
RECOVERY PERIOD
A f t e r
t h e
t r a n s p l a n t ,
t h e
r e c i p i e n t
i s
m
o n i t o r e d i n a n
i n t e n s i v e c a r e
u n i t f o r a
f e w
d a y s
a n d r e m a i n s
i n h o s p i t a l f o r
u p t o f o u r w e e k s . I m m u n o s u p p r e s s a n t
d r u g s t o p r e v e n t r e j e c t i o n o f t h e n e w
o r g a n m u s t b e t a k e n f o r l i f e .
liv e v a c c in e
A
v a c c i n e
c o n t a i n i n g l i v e b u t w e a k e n e d
( a t t e n u a t e d )
f o r m
s
o f
a n
i n f e c t i o u s
o r g a n i s m .
L i v e v a c c i n e s
i n c l u d e t h o s e
f o r
m
e a s l e s
,
m u m p s , r u b e l l a , p o l i o m y e l i t i s
,
a n d
t u b e r c u l o s i s
.
L iv ia l
T h e b r a n d n a m e f o r
t i b o l o n e ,
a d r u g t h a t
i s u s e d i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s y m p -
t o m s o f m e n o p a u s e .
liv in g w ill
A
w r i t t e n
d e c l a r a t i o n ,
s i g n e d
b y
a n
a d u l t o f s o u n d m i n d , t h a t o u t l i n e s t h e
e x t e n t o f l i f e - p r o l o n g i n g t r e a t m e n t d e s -
i r e d i n t h e
e v e n t
o f t h e
p e r s o n b e i n g
i n c a p a b l e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n t h e U K ,
a l i v i n g w i l l h a s n o l e g a l f o r c e , b u t d o c -
t o r s t r y t o r e s p e c t p a t i e n t s ’ w i s h e s .
LM S
T h e a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r
l e i o m y o s a r c o m a
.
Loa loa
T h e p a r a s i t i c w o r m r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e
d i s e a s e
l o i a s i s
.
lo b a r p n e u m o n ia
A f o r m o f
p n e u m o n i a
( i n f l a m m a t i o n o f
t h e l u n g ) i n w h i c h o n l y o n e l o b e o f a
l u n g i s a f f e c t e d .
lo b e
O n e
o f t h e
c l e a r l y
d e f i n e d
p a r t s
i n t o
w h i c h c e r t a i n o r g a n s , s u c h a s t h e b r a i n ,
l i v e r , a n d l u n g s ,
a r e d i v i d e d . T h e t e r m
m a y a l s o b e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e e a r l o b e .
lo b e c to m y
A n
o p e r a t i o n p e r f o r m e d t o
c u t
o u t a
l o b e
i n t h e l i v e r
( s e e
h e p a t e c t o m y , p a r -
t i a l
),
t h e l u n g
( s e e
l o b e c t o m y , l u n g
),
o r
t h e t h y r o i d g l a n d ( s e e
t h y r o i d e c t o m y
) .
lo b e c to m y , lu n g
A n o p e r a t i o n t o c u t o u t o n e o f t h e
l o b e s
o f a
l u n g
,
u s u a l l y t o r e m o v e a c a n c e r o u s
t u m o u r i n t h e l u n g .
lo b o to m y , p re fro n ta l
T h e c u t t i n g o f s o m e o f t h e f i b r e s t h a t
l i n k t h e b r a i n ’s f r o n t a l l o b e s t o t h e r e s t
o f t h e b r a i n . T h i s o p e r a t i o n w a s f o r m
-
e r l y
u s e d
t o
t r e a t
s e v e r e
p s y c h i a t r i c
d i s o r d e r s . I t o f t e n c a u s e d h a r m f u l p e r -
s o n a l i t y c h a n g e s , h o w e v e r , a n d i s n o w
v e r y r a r e l y p e r f o r m e d .
L o b s te in ’s s y n d ro m e
S e e
o s t e o g e n e s i s i m p e r f e c t a
.
lo b u la r
A w o r d m e a n i n g “ r e l a t i n g t o a l o b u l e ” .
lo b u le
A s m a l l e r d i v i s i o n o f a l o b e o f a n o r g a n
s u c h
a s
t h e
l i v e r
o r
l u n g
.
L o b u l e s
a r e
s e p a r a t e d b y b o u n d a r i e s s u c h a s s e p t a
( d i v i d i n g w a l l s ) .
lo c a l a n a e s th e tic
S e e
a n a e s t h e s i a , l o c a l .
lo c a liz e d a m n e s ia
L o s s o f m
e m o r y f o r a l l e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g
w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d o f t i m e . S e e
a l s o
a m n e s i a
.
lo c a liz in g s ig n
A s i g n t h a t i s f o u n d d u r i n g
e x a m i n a t i o n
t h a t
p i n p o i n t s
o f a d i s o r d e r .
a p h y s i c a l
t h e
c a u s e
lo c h ia
T h e
d i s c h a r g e ,
a f t e r
c h i l d b i r t h ,
o f
b l o o d a n d f r a g m e n t s o f u t e r i n e l i n i n g
f r o m
t h e a r e a w h e r e t h e
p l a c e n t a
w a s
a t t a c h e d . T h e
d i s c h a r g e
i s
b r i g h t
r e d
f o r t h e f i r s t t h r e e o r f o u r d a y s a n d t h e n
b e c o m
e s p a l e r . T h e
a m
o u n t
o f l o c h i a
d e c r e a s e s
a s
t h e
p l a c e n t a l
s i t e
h e a l s ,
a n d t h e d i s c h a r g e u s u a l l y c e a s e s c o m
-
p l e t e l y w i t h i n s i x w e e k s .
lo c k e d k n e e
A t e m p o r a r y l o s s o f t h e a b i l i t y t o m o v e
t h e
k n e e
j o i n t . A l o c k e d k n e e m a y b e t h e
r e s u l t
o f a
t o r n
c a r t i l a g e
o r
o f s m a l l
f r a g m e n t s
o f b o n e
o r
c a r t i l a g e
i n
t h e
j o i n t
(
l o o s e b o d i e s
).
474
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