LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM
may
occur to
an
incapacitating
degree
in some
individuals. If a
limb
that is
affected
by
lymphoedema
is subsequ-
ently
injured, infection
can
easily
enter
the
site
of injury and
spread
rapidly
through
the
body
tissues.
TREATMENT
There
is no
known
cure
for lymphoed-
ema. Treatment consists of taking
d i u r e t i c
d r u g s
,
wearing
an
elastic bandage
or
compression
sleeve, massage, and
spe-
cial exercises; these
measures may
bring
about some
improvement.
ly m p h o g ra n u lo m a v e n e re u m
A
sexually
transm
itted
d
isease
caused
by
a
c h l a m y d i a l i n f e c t i o n
;
it is most common
in tropical areas.
The
first sign
of lymphogranuloma
venereum
may
be
a
small genital blister
that heals in a
few
days. There
may
also
be
fever, headache, muscle
and
joint
pains, and
a
rash. The
l y m p h n o d e s
,
par-
ticularly in the
groin, become
painfully
enlarged
and
inflamed.
A b s c e s s e s
may
form
, and
persistent
u l c e r s
may
devel-
op, on
the
skin
over the
affected
nodes.
L
Treatment is w
ith
a n t i b i o t i c d r u g s
.
ly m p h o m a
Any
of a
group
of cancers in which
the
cells of lymphoid
tissue
(found
princi-
pally
in the
l y m p h n o d e s
and
the
s p l e e n
)
multiply unchecked.
Lymphomas fall into
two
principal
categories. If certain
characteristic ab-
normal cells (Reed-Sternberg
cells) are
present, the
condition
is called
H o d g -
k i n ’s d i s e a s e
.
All other forms are
known
as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
(see
l y m -
p h o m a , n o n - H o d g k i n ’s
).
ly m p h o m a , n o n -H o d g k in ’s
Any
cancer that affects the
lymphoid
tissue
(found
mainly in the
l y m p h n o d e s
and
s p l e e n
) other than
the
condition
H o d g k i n ’s d i s e a s e
.
CAUSES
In most cases, non-Hodgkin’s lymph-
oma
has no
known
cause. Occasionally,
however, the
disease
is associated
w
ith
suppression
of the
i m m u n e s y s t e m
,
par-
ticularly after an
organ
transplant. One
type
of
non-Hodgkin’s
lymphoma,
called
B u r k i t t ’s l y m p h o m a
,
is associated
w
ith
the
E p s t e i n - B a r r v i r u s
.
SYMPTOMS
There
is usually painless swelling
of
l y m p h n o d e s
in the
neck
or groin. The
l i v e r
and
s p l e e n
may
enlarge, and
lym
-
phoid
tissue
in the
abdomen
may
be
affected. Many
other organs may
be-
come
involved,
leading
to
diverse
symptoms ranging
from
headache
to
skin
ulceration. In some
cases, there
may
be
fever, marked
weight loss, and
recurrent infections.
DIAGNOSIS
D
iagnosis is based
on
a
b i o p s y
,
usually
taken
from
a
lymph
node. Further
investigations, such
as
c h e s t X - r a y
,
C T
s c a n n i n g
,
M R I
,
b o n e m a r r o w b i o p s y
,
and
l y m p h a n g i o g r a p h y ,
may
be
needed
to
assess the
extent of the
d
isease.
TREATMENT
In cases where
the
lymphoma
is con-
fined
to
a
single
group
of lymph
nodes,
treatment consists of
r a d i o t h e r a p y
.
More
often, however, the
disease
is more
extensive, and
in such
cases
a n t i c a n c e r
d r u g s
are
given. A
b o n e m a r r o w t r a n s p l a n t
,
w
ith
drug
treatment and/or radiothera-
py, may
be
considered
for some
people.
ly m p h o p e n ia
A
decrease
in the
number of
l y m p h o -
c y t e s
,
a
type
of white blood
cell that
mounts the
immune
response, either by
a
direct attack
on
abnormal cells or
invading
organisms or by
producing
antibodies that cause
their destruction.
This condition
may
occur when
the
bone
marrow
fails to
produce
enough
blood
cells, as in aplastic anaem
ia
(see
a n a e m i a ,
a p l a s t i c
)
or treatment w
ith
r a d i o t h e r a p y
or
a n t i c a n c e r d r u g s
.
ly m p h o s a rc o m a
The
former name
for a
condition
that is
now
classified
as
a
type
of non-
Hodgkin’s lymphoma
(see
l y m p h o m a ,
n o n - H o d g k i n ’s
).
ly s e rg id e
see
L S D .
ly s is
A
medical term
for breaking
down
or
destruction. The
term
lysis is usually
applied
to
the
destruction
of cells by
disintegration
of their outer membrane.
A
common
example
is
h a e m o l y s i s
,
the
breakdown
of red
blood
cells.
Lysis may
be
caused
by
chem
ical
action, for example
the
action
of an
e n z y m e
,
or by
physical action, for
example
the
action
of heat or cold. The
term
“lysis”
is also
occasionally
used
to
refer to
a
sudden
recovery
from
a
fever.
ly s o s o m a l s to ra g e d is e a s e
One
of several different conditions, also
known
as inborn
errors of metabolism
(see
m e t a b o l i s m , i n b o r n e r r o r s o f
) in most
of which
an
enzyme
is m
issing
from
the
l y s o s o m e
w
ithin
cells. This absence
leads to
a
buildup
of abnormal sub-
stances w
ithin
the
cells that causes
tissue
damage.
ly s o s o m e
One
of a
variety
of structures present
w
ithin
every
cell that are
responsible,
when
the
cell dies, for breaking
down
the
components of the
cell for the
pur-
poses of recycling.
ly so z y m e
An
e n z y m e
found
in tears, saliva, sweat,
nasal secretions, breast m
ilk, and
many
tissues. It destroys bacteria
by
disrupt-
ing
their cell walls.
482
previous page 481 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online next page 483 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online Home Toggle text on/off