MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION
THE SPREAD OF MALARIA
Malaria parasites (plasmodia) are
transmitted by the bites of infected
A
nopheles
mosquitoes. The plasmodia
invade the liver and then the red
blood cells, where they multiply.
When the red blood cells rupture,
they release the parasites; some of
the plasmodia invade more red cells,
while others develop into forms that
can infect mosquitoes.
Malarial infection
of blood cells
Some of the red
blood cells on this
TEM (transmission
electron micrograph)
contain the typical
“signet ring” forms
of one type of
malarial parasite.
M
t h e v i s i t
( e x a c t t i m i n g s d e p e n d o n t h e
t y p e o f d r u g ) . D o c t o r s c a n p r o v i d e u p -
t o - d a t e a d v i c e o n t h e c h o i c e o f d r u g s .
M a la ro n e
A
b r a n d - n a m e d
a n t i m a l a r i a l d r u g
c o n -
t a i n i n g
p r o g u a n i l
w i t h a t o v a q u o n e .
m a la th io n
A n
a n t i p a r a s i t i c d r u g
f o r s k i n o r h a i r i n -
f e s t a t i o n s s u c h a s
l i c e
a n d
s c a b i e s
.
T h e
d r u g k i l l s p a r a s i t e s b y i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h
t h e i r
n e r v o u s
s y s t e m s .
M a l a t h i o n
i s
a p p l i e d a s a s h a m p o o o r a l o t i o n . I f t h e y
a r e
u s e d
c o r r e c t l y ,
p r e p a r a t i o n s
t h a t
c o n t a i n m a l a t h i o n s h o u l d n o t p r o d u c e
a d v e r s e e f f e c t s . T h e y s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d
f o r m
o r e t h a n t h r e e w e e k s a t a t i m e ,
h o w e v e r a n d s h o u l d n o t b e a p p l i e d t o
b r o k e n o r i n f e c t e d s k i n . S o m e a l c o h o l -
b a s e d l o t i o n s m a y g i v e o f f f u m e s t h a t
c a u s e w h e e z i n g i n p e o p l e w i t h a s t h m a .
m a le
T h e t e r m
t h a t
i s
u s e d
f o r
a
m a n
o r
a b o y M
a l e s e x i s d e t e r m
i n e d b y t h e
p o s s e s s i o n o f a Y
s e x c h r o m o s o m e
,
a n d
b y t h e p r e s e n c e o f a
p e n i s
a n d
t e s t e s
( s e e
s e x u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r i m a r y
).
m a le -p a tte rn b a ld n e s s
T h e m o s t c o m
m
o n t y p e o f
a l o p e c i a
.
m a lfo rm a tio n
A
d e f o r m i t y ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y
o n e
t h a t
r e s u l t s f r o m
t h e f a u l t y d e v e l o p m e n t o f
a
b a b y
i n
t h e
m
o t h e r ’s
u t e r u s .
( S e e
e m b r y o
a n d
u t e r u s
).
m a lig n a n t
A t e r m u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a c o n d i t i o n t h a t
t e n d s
t o
b e c o m
e
p r o g r e s s i v e l y
w o r s e
a n d e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t i n d e a t h . T h e t e r m
“ m a l i g n a n t ” i s p r i m a r i l y u s e d w i t h r e f -
e r e n c e
t o
a
c a n c e r o u s
t u m o u r
w h o s e
c e l l s
s p r e a d f r o m
t h e
o r i g i n a l
s i t e
t o
f o r m s e c o n d a r y t u m o u r s i n o t h e r p a r t s
o f t h e b o d y
m a lig n a n t h y p e rte n s io n
S e v e r e
h y p e r t e n s i o n
i n w h i c h t h e b l o o d
p r e s s u r e r i s e s s u d d e n l y t o a v e r y h i g h
l e v e l ,
u s u a l l y
f o r
n o
o b v i o u s
c a u s e ,
r e s u l t i n g
i n
d a m a g e
t o
a r t e r i o l e s
a n d
c a p i l l a r i e s ( t i n y b l o o d v e s s e l s ) . T h e c o n -
d i t i o n
o c c u r s
i n
a
s m a l l
m
i n o r i t y
o f
p e o p l e w i t h e x i s t i n g h y p e r t e n s i o n , p a r -
t i c u l a r l y i f i t i s d u e t o k i d n e y d i s o r d e r s ;
i t i s m
o r e c o m
m o n i n y o u n g a d u l t s .
M o s t o f t h e s y m p t o m s a r e c a u s e d b y
i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e i n
b l o o d v e s s e l s i n
t h e h e a d ; t h e y i n c l u d e h e a d a c h e , b l u r r e d
v i s i o n ,
c o n f u s i o n ,
d r o w s i n e s s ,
n a u s e a ,
a n d v o m i t i n g . T h e r e m a y a l s o b e c h e s t
p a i n a n d s h o r t n e s s o f b r e a t h . I n a d d i -
t i o n , t h e p r e s s u r e m a y p r o d u c e c h a n g e s
i n i n t e r n a l o r g a n s ; f o r e x a m p l e , i t c a u s e s
485
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