imaged. Two images are taken of each
breast. Mammography is used to investi-
b r e a s t l u m p s ,
and to screen for
b r e a s t c a n c e r ,
because it reveals tumours
too small to be found in a physical
examination. It is offered every three
years to all women between the ages of
m a m m o p la s ty
An operation that is performed in order
to make large breasts smaller, to enlarge
small breasts, or to reconstruct a breast
following surgery for
b r e a s t c a n c e r
many cases, mammoplasty is performed
for cosmetic reasons. However, the re-
duction of excessively large breasts may
have the physical benefit of reducing
Reconstruction of a breast
The right breast (left in the image) was removed in
an earlier mastectomy operation. The breast has
been reconstructed using a silicone implant.
PROCEDURE FOR MAMMOGRAPHY
Mammography is a simple, safe procedure and causes only slight discomfort. Only
low-dose X-rays are used. The breast may be X-rayed from above, the side, or both;
and sometimes an oblique (angled) view is taken.
How mammography is done
In the method shown here, the
breast is place on the machine
and gentlycompressed between
the X-rayplate below and a
plastic cover above. This
flattens the breast so that as
much tissue as possible can be
imaged. Several views maybe
taken. In another method, the
breast hangs freely and is
X-rayed from the side.
The mammogram on the far
left shows a side view ofthe
healthy, relatively dense, breast
tissue of a younger woman. In
the mammogram on the left, a
tumour made up of fibrous
tissue) is present on the upper
part ofthe breast. A biopsy
(removal of a tissue sample for
analysis) can confirm whether
or not a tumour is cancerous.
In breast reduction, excess tissue and
skin is removed and the tissue is raised
and reshaped to correct drooping. Breast
enlargement or augmentation involves
the insertion of a soft, fluid-filled
b r e a s t
i m p l a n t
behind the muscles of the chest wall.
m a s t e c t o m y
(removal of a breast) for cancer, breast
either at the same time or as a separate
procedure. The normal contours of the
breast are restored by the insertion of
Breast reduction carries few risks, but
enlargement may cause complications.
These problems include leakage from
rounding breast tissue,
Further surgery may be needed.
m a n d ib le
j a w .
The mandible consists of
two fused pieces of bone forming a U
shape. The upper surface bears the lower
PROCEDURES FOR MAMMOPLASTY
One ofthe most common cosmetic operations, mammoplasty is carried out to
improve the appearance ofthe breasts by removal of excess fat and skin or by
using an implant to increase their size.
Incisions are made around the edge ofthe
nipple, in the crease under the breast, and from
the nipple to the crease. Excess tissue and skin
are removed, and the nipple is repositioned,
then the incisions are closed.
Procedure for breast enlargement
An incision is made in the armpit or along
the crease under the breast, and a pocket is
created behind the breast or the chest muscles
to receive the implant. After the implant has
been inserted, the incision is stitched.