MEDULLOBLASTOMA
LANDMARKS IN MEDICINE: DIAGNOSIS
Date
Development
c.400
BC
Disease concept Introduced by the Greek physician Hippocrates.
1612
Medical thermometer Devised by the Italian physician Sanctorius.
c.1660
Light microscope Single-lens microscope developed by the Dutch naturalist
Antonj van Leeuwenhoek, who discovered microorganisms with it. A practicable
compound microscope was not developed until the 19th century.
1810
Stethoscope Invented by the French physician René Laennec.
1850-1900
Germ theory of disease Proposed by the French scientist Louis Pasteur and
developed by the German bacteriologist Robert Koch.
1851
Ophthalmoscope Invented by the German scientist Herman von Helmholtz.
1 8 9 5
X-rays Discovered by the German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen. He also produced
the first X-ray picture ofthe body.
1906
Electrocardiograph (ECG) Invented by the Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven.
c.1932
Transmission electron microscope (TEM) Constructed by the German
scientists Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska.
1938
Cardiac catheterization First performed by George Peter Robb and Israel
Steinberg in New York.
1957
Fibre-optic endoscopy Pioneered by the South African-born doctor Basil
Hirschowitz at the University of Michigan.
1972
CT scanner Invented by the British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI
Laboratories, England, and the South African-born physicist Alan Cormack of Tufts
University, Massachusetts.
1975
Monoclonal antibodies Large-scale production method for monoclonal
antibodies developed by the Argentinian-born scientist César Milstein at the
Medical Research Council Laboratories, England.
1 9 7 6
Chorionic villus sampling Developed by Chinese gynaecologists as an aid to
the early diagnosis of genetic disorders.
1981
MRI scanner Developed by scientists at Thorn-EMI Laboratories and
Nottingham University, England.
1 9 8 5
Polymerase chain reaction Rapid copying ofDNA sequences developed by Kary
Mullis ofthe Cetus Corporation, California.
1 9 9 5
Genetics Chromosome sequence of first nonviral organism,
H a e m o p h i l u s
i n f l u e n z a e ,
identified.
2003
Human Genome Completion ofthe Human Genome Project by the International
Human Genome International Consortium, following first draft produced in 2001.
o r d e r s . A c o m
m
o n f o r m o f m e d i t a t i o n
p r a c t i s e d i n E u r o p e a n d N o r t h A m e r i c a
i s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n ( T M
) .
M e d ite rra n e a n d ie t
A
d i e t b a s e d
o n t h e
t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d s
e a t e n i n M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o u n t r i e s , w h e r e
p e o p l e h a v e a l o w e r r i s k o f c a r d i o v a s c u -
l a r
d i s e a s e
a n d
c a n c e r
t h a n
p e o p l e
i n
n o r t h e r n E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s . T h e b u l k
o f t h e d i e t c o n s i s t s o f f r u i t , v e g e t a b l e s ,
a n d g r a i n - b a s e d f o o d s s u c h a s p a s t a a n d
c o u s c o u s . T h e
m
a j o r
s o u r c e
o f f a t
i s
o l i v e o i l , a
m o n o u n s a t u r a t e d
f a t ( s e e
f a t s
a n d o i l s
) . T h e d i e t a l s o i n c l u d e s f i s h , b u t
o n l y s m a l l
a m o u n t s
o f m e a t ,
p o u l t r y ,
e g g s , a n d d a i r y p r o d u c t s .
M e d ite rra n e a n fe v e r
S e e
b r u c e l l o s i s
.
M e d ite rra n e a n fe v e r, fa m ilia l
S e e
f a m i l i a l M
e d i t e r r a n e a n f e v e r
.
m e d ro x y p ro g e s te ro n e
A
p r o g e s t o g e n d r u g
u s e d t o t r e a t
e n d o -
m e t r i o s i s
( a c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h f r a g m e n t s
o f u t e r i n e l i n i n g a r e f o u n d i n t h e p e l v i c
c a v i t y ) , a s w e l l a s c e r t a i n t y p e s o f
b r e a s t
c a n c e r
a n d u t e r i n e
c a n c e r
( s e e
u t e r u s ,
c a n c e r o f
) . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s s o m e t i m e s
u s e d t o t r e a t m e n s t r u a l d i s o r d e r s s u c h
a s
a m e n o r r h o e a
( a b s e n c e
o f m e n s t r u a -
t i o n ) . T h e
d r u g c a n a l s o b e u s e d a s a
c o n t r a c e p t i v e ,
g i v e n
b y
i n j e c t i o n
a t
t h r e e - m o n t h i n t e r v a l s ( s e e
c o n t r a c e p t i o n ,
h o r m o n a l m e t h o d s o f
) .
P o s s i b l e
a d v e r s e
e f f e c t s
i n c l u d e
w e i g h t
g a i n ,
s w o l l e n
a n k l e s , a n d b r e a s t t e n d e r n e s s .
m e d u lla
T h e i n n e r m o s t p a r t o f a b o d y s t r u c t u r e ;
f o r e x a m p l e , t h e a d r e n a l m e d u l l a i s t h e
c e n t r a l a r e a o f a n
a d r e n a l g l a n d
.
I n a d d i -
t i o n , t h e w o r d “ m e d u l l a ” i s s o m e t i m e s
u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e
m e d u l l a o b l o n g a t a
.
m e d u lla o b lo n g a ta
A l s o c a l l e d t h e
m e d u l l a
,
t h e l o w e s t p a r t
o f t h e
b r a i n s t e m
.
T h e m e d u l l a o b l o n g a t a
l i e s a t t h e b a s e o f t h e s k u l l . I t c o n n e c t s
t h e b r a i n t o t h e
s p i n a l c o r d
.
m e d u llo b la s to m a
A t y p e
o f c a n c e r o u s
b r a i n t u m o u r
t h a t
o c c u r s m a i n l y i n c h i l d r e n . A m e d u l l o -
b l a s t o m a u s u a l l y a r i s e s f r o m t h e
c e r e -
b e l l u m
,
t h e r e g i o n o f t h e b r a i n t h a t i s
c o n c e r n e d w i t h
p o s t u r e ,
b a l a n c e ,
a n d
c o o r d i n a t i o n . T h e t u m o u r g r o w s r a p i d -
l y a n d m a y s p r e a d t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e
b r a i n
a n d
a l s o
t o
t h e
s p i n a l c o r d
.
A
M
493
previous page 492 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online next page 494 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online Home Toggle text on/off