MEFENAMIC ACID
M
LANDMARKS IN MEDICINE: SURGERY
Date
Development
1545
Basic surgical principles Established by the French surgeon Ambroise Pare.
1842
General anaesthesia First operation using general anaesthesia performed by
the American surgeon Crawford Long, who used ether. In 1845, the American
dentist Horace Wells used nitrous oxide (laughing gas) as an anaesthetic. In 1847,
the British obstetrician James Simpson introduced chloroform anaesthesia.
1870
Antiseptic surgery Pioneered by the British surgeon Joseph Lister, who used a
carbolic acid (phenol) spray during surgery to help prevent infection.
1901
Blood groups ABO blood groups discovered by the Austrian pathologist Karl
Landsteiner, so establishing the basis for safe transfusions.
1951
Coronary artery bypass graft First attempted by the Canadian surgeon Arthur
Vineberg at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal.
1 9 5 5
Kidney transplant First successful kidney transplant (between identical twins)
performed by a team of American surgeons, led by Joseph Murray, ofthe Harvard
Medical School, Massachusetts.
1967
Heart transplant First human hearttransplant performed by the South African
surgeon Christian Barnaard at the Groote Schur Hospital, Cape Town.
1 9 7 6
Coronary angioplasty Introduced by the Swiss surgeon Andreas Gruntzig at the
University Hospital, Zurich.
1 9 8 7
Minimally invasive surgery The first cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal)
using laparoscopic techniques under video control performed by the French doctor
P. Mouret, in Lyon.
1 9 9 8
Robotic surgery First coronary artery bypass surgery using a robot performed by
a team under Professor Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr, at Leipzig Heart Centre, Germany.
LANDMARKS IN MEDICINE: OTHER TREATMENTS
Date
Development
c.1270
Glasses Thoughtto have been invented in Italy. Contact lenses were invented in
1887 by the Swiss optician Eugen Frick.
1817
Dental plate Introduced by the American dentist Anthony Plantson.
1891
Baby incubator Introduced by the French doctor Alexandre Lion.
1901
Hearing-aid (electric) Developed by the American inventor Miller Reese
Hutchinson. The first truly miniature hearing-aid was introduced in 1952 by the
Sonotone Corporation.
1 9 4 5
Kidney dialysis machine Developed by the Dutch surgeon Willem Kolff.
1 9 7 8
“Test-tube baby” Louise Brown, the first baby resulting from in-vitro fertilization,
was born in the UK. The IVF techniques were developed by the British
gynaecologist PatrickSteptoe and the embryologist Robert Edwards.
1 9 7 9
Shock-wave lithotripsy Pioneered by researchers atthe University Hospital,
Munich, Germany.
1 9 9 0
Gene therapy First attempted atthe US National Institute of Health, by doctors
W. French Anderson, Michael Blaese, and Kenneth W. Culver, to treat a four-year-
old girl with a form ofSevere Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID). Gene therapy
has since had some success, but to date it is still at an experimental stage.
m
o r n i n g h e a d a c h e , r e p e a t e d v o m i t i n g ,
a n d a
c l u m s y
g a i t
d e v e l o p . T h e r e
a r e
a l s o f r e q u e n t f a l l s .
T h e t u m o u r i s d i a g n o s e d b y
C T s c a n -
n i n g
o r
M R I
a n d
c a n
o f t e n
b e
t r e a t e d
w i t h
r a d i o t h e r a p y
.
S u r g e r y a n d
a n t i c a n c e r
d r u g s
m a y a l s o b e n e e d e d .
m e fe n a m ic a c id
A n N S A I D
( s e e
n o n s t e r o i d a l a n t i - i n f l a m -
m a t o r y d r u g s
)
u s e d t o r e l i e v e p a i n a n d
i n f l a m m a t i o n . M
e f e n a m i c a c i d m a y b e
g i v e n f o r c o n d i t i o n s s u c h a s h e a d a c h e ,
t o o t h a c h e ,
a n d
d y s m e n o r r h o e a
( p a i n f u l
m e n s t r u a l p e r i o d s ) , a n d t o r e d u c e
m e n -
o r r h a g i a
( e x c e s s i v e m e n s t r u a l b l e e d i n g ) .
I t m a y a l s o b e p r e s c r i b e d f o r l o n g - t e r m
r e l i e f
o f
j o i n t
p a i n
a n d
s t i f f n e s s
i n
o s t e o a r t h r i t i s
a n d
r h e u m a t o i d a r t h r i t i s
.
P o s s i b l e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s a r e t y p i c a l f o r
N S A I D s ; t h e y i n c l u d e a b d o m i n a l p a i n ,
i n d i g e s t i o n , n a u s e a , a n d v o m i t i n g .
m e flo q u in e
A d r u g u s e d t o p r e v e n t a n d t r e a t
m a l a r i a
i n p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d w h e r e t h e p a r a s i t e
t h a t c a u s e s i t i s r e s i s t a n t t o
c h l o r o q u i n e
.
M
e f l o q u i n e i s o n e o f t h e p r e f e r r e d t r e a t -
m e n t s f o r f a l c i p a r u m m a l a r i a .
S i d e e f f e c t s i n c l u d e n a u s e a , v o m i t i n g ,
a n d
d i a r r h o e a .
R a r e l y ,
t h e r e
m a y
b e
p a n i c a t t a c k s
,
h a l l u c i n a t i o n s
,
a n d
p s y c h o -
s i s
.
M
e f l o q u i n e i s n o t r e c o m m e n d e d f o r
p e o p l e w h o h a v e a h i s t o r y o f d i s o r d e r s
s u c h a s
d e p r e s s i o n
o r
e p i l e p s y
.
m e g a -
A
p r e f i x
m e a n i n g
“ v e r y
l a r g e ” ,
a s
i n
m e g a c o l o n
,
a
c o n d i t i o n
i n
w h i c h
t h e
c o l o n
i s
g r e a t l y
e n l a r g e d .
T h e
p r e f i x
“ m
e g a l o - ” h a s t h e s a m e m e a n i n g .
m e g a c o lo n
A g r o s s d i s t e n s i o n ( e n l a r g e m e n t ) o f t h e
c o l o n
,
u s u a l l y
a c c o m p a n i e d
b y
s e v e r e ,
c h r o n i c
c o n s t i p a t i o n
.
CAUSES
I n c h i l d r e n , t h e m a i n c a u s e s o f m e g a -
c o l o n
a r e
a n a l f i s s u r e s
,
H i r s c h s p r u n g ’s
d i s e a s e
,
a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l
f a c t o r s t h a t
m a y h a v e a r i s e n d u r i n g t o i l e t - t r a i n i n g .
I n
e l d e r l y
p e o p l e ,
c a u s e s
i n c l u d e
t h e
l o n g - t e r m
u s e o f s t r o n g
l a x a t i v e d r u g s
.
P e o p l e s u f f e r i n g f r o m c h r o n i c
d e p r e s s i o n
o r
s c h i z o p h r e n i a
o f t e n h a v e m e g a c o l o n .
O t h e r ,
r a r e r
c a u s e s
i n c l u d e
h y p o t h y -
r o i d i s m
,
s p i n a l i n j u r y
,
a n d
t h e
u s e
o f
d r u g s s u c h a s
m o r p h i n e
a n d
c o d e i n e
.
SYMPTOMS
M
e g a c o l o n c a u s e s c o n s t i p a t i o n a n d a b -
d o m i n a l b l o a t i n g . S o m e a f f e c t e d i n d i v i -
d u a l s e x p e r i e n c e l o s s o f a p p e t i t e , w h i c h
494
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