MEIG’S SYNDROME
LANDMARKS IN MEDICINE: DRUGS
Date
Development
1666
Quinine The British physician Thomas Sydenham popularized the use of Jesuits’
bark (containing quinine) for treating malaria.
1785
Digitalis The use of digitalis to treat heart failure described by the British
physician William Withering.
1796
Smallpox vaccination The firstvaccination to be performed, by the British
physician Edward Jenner. The first true vaccine (consisting of weakened
microorganisms), against chicken cholera, was developed in 1880 by the French
scientist Louis Pasteur.
1805
Morphine Extracted from opium and used to relieve pain, by the German
pharmacist Friedrich Sertürner.
1911
Salvarsan Introduced by the German bacteriologist Paul Ehrlich to treat syphilis.
1928
Penicillin Antibacterial action first recognized by the British bacteriologist
Alexander Fleming. Produced as a drug in 1940, by the Australian-born British
pathologist Howard Florey and the German-born British biochemist Ernst Chain.
1 9 3 5
Sulphonamides Antibacterial action discovered by the German pharmacologist
Gerhard Domagk.
1951
Oral contraceptive Developed by the American doctors Gregory Pincus and John
Rock, and the Austrian-born American chemist Carl Djerassi.
1 9 5 9
Librium (chlordiazepoxide) The first benzodiazepine minor tranquillizer,
introduced by the Swiss pharmaceutical company Hoffmann-LaRoche.
1962
Nethalide (pronethalol) The first beta-blocker heart drug, developed by
scientists at Imperial Chemical Industries, England.
1984
Genetically engineered human insulin Developed by scientists at Genentech,
California.
1986
Zidovudine (originally called AZT) Introduced to treat AIDS after development by
scientists at Burroughs Wellcome Research Laboratories, North Carolina.
1 9 9 8
Viagra (sildenafil) Introduced as a treatment for erectile dysfunction after
development by the Pfizer Corporation, US.
m a y l e a d t o w e i g h t l o s s . D i a r r h o e a m a y
o c c u r i f s e m i - l i q u i d f a e c e s l e a k a r o u n d
t h e o b s t r u c t i n g h a r d f a e c e s .
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
T h e
d i a g n o s i s
i s
m a d e
b y
p r o c t o s c o p y
( v i e w i n g o f t h e r e c t u m w i t h a n e n d o -
s c o p e ) ,
b a r i u m X - r a y e x a m i n a t i o n
,
a n d
t e s t s
t o
a s s e s s
t h e
f u n c t i o n i n g
o f t h e
i n t e s t i n a l m u s c l e s . I f H i r s c h s p r u n g ’s d i s -
e a s e
i s
s u s p e c t e d ,
b i o p s y
o f t h e
l a r g e
i n t e s t i n e m a y b e p e r f o r m e d .
I m p a c t e d
f a e c e s
a r e
o f t e n
r e m o v e d
u s i n g
e n e m a s
.
I n s e v e r e c a s e s , t h e f a e c e s
m u s t b e r e m o v e d m a n u a l l y .
m e g a lo b la s tic a n a e m ia
S e e
a n a e m i a , m e g a l o b l a s t i c
.
m e g a lo m a n ia
A n e x a g g e r a t e d s e n s e o f o n e ’s i m p o r t a n c e
o r a b i l i t y t h a t o f t e n o c c u r s i n
m a n i a
.
M e g a -
l o m a n i a m a y t a k e t h e f o r m o f a
d e l u s i o n
o f
g r a n d e u r , o r m a y m a n i f e s t i t s e l f a s a d e s i r e
t o
o r g a n i z e l a r g e - s c a l e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e
e x p e n s i v e a n d i n v o l v e m a n y p e o p l e .
-m e g a ly
A s u f f i x m e a n i n g “ e n l a r g e m e n t ” , a s i n
a c r o m e g a l y
,
a d i s o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e j a w ,
s k u l l , h a n d s , a n d f e e t a r e e n l a r g e d .
m e g a u re te r
G r o s s d i s t e n s i o n ( w i d e n i n g ) o f a
u r e t e r
,
t h e t u b e t h a t
c a r r i e s u r i n e f r o m
e a c h
k i d n e y
t o
t h e
b l a d d e r .
O n e
p o s s i b l e
c a u s e o f m e g a u r e t e r i s a l o n g - s t a n d i n g
b l o c k a g e
i n
t h e
u r e t e r
t h a t
s t o p s
t h e
f l o w o f u r i n e . A n o t h e r i s b a c k w a r d f l o w
o f u r i n e f r o m t h e b l a d d e r i n t o t h e u r e -
t e r s w h i l e t h e b l a d d e r i s b e i n g e m p t i e d
( s e e
v e s i c o u r e t e r i c r e f l u x
).
I n s o m e c a s e s ,
t h e c o n d i t i o n i s c o n g e n i t a l
( p r e s e n t a t
b i r t h ) a n d h a s n o k n o w n c a u s e .
M e g a u r e t e r i s t r e a t e d b y s u r g e r y t o
r e m o v e b l o c k a g e s o r t o r e l i e v e r e f l u x .
m e g e s tro l
A
p r o g e s t o g e n d r u g
t h a t i s u s e d t o t r e a t
u t e r i n e c a n c e r ( s e e
u t e r u s , c a n c e r o f
)
a n d
c e r t a i n t y p e s o f
b r e a s t c a n c e r
.
M
e g e s t r o l
m a y b e p r e s c r i b e d w h e n a t u m o u r
i s
i n o p e r a b l e ,
i f a
t u m o u r
h a s
r e c u r r e d
a f t e r s u r g e r y ,
o r w h e n o t h e r
a n t i c a n c e r
d r u g s
o r
r a d i o t h e r a p y
p r o v e i n e f f e c t i v e .
P o s s i b l e
a d v e r s e
e f f e c t s
o f t h e
d r u g
i n c l u d e
s w o l l e n
a n k l e s ,
w e i g h t
g a i n ,
n a u s e a , d i z z i n e s s ,
h e a d a c h e , r a s h , a n d ,
r a r e l y , r a i s e d b l o o d c a l c i u m l e v e l s .
m e ib o m ia n c y st
S e e
c h a l a z i o n
.
m e ib o m ia n g la n d
A s m a l l s e b a c e o u s ( o i l - s e c r e t i n g ) g l a n d
s i t u a t e d u n d e r t h e
c o n j u n c t i v a
( m e m b r a -
n o u s l i n i n g )
o f e a c h e y e l i d . I f o n e o f
t h e g l a n d s b e c o m e s b l o c k e d , i t e n l a r g e s
t o
c r e a t e
a
s w e l l i n g
w i t h i n
t h e
l i d ,
w h i c h i s k n o w n a s a
c h a l a z i o n
.
m e ib o m ia n itis
I n f l a m m a t i o n o f t h e
m e i b o m i a n g l a n d s
,
t h e
s e b a c e o u s
( o i l - s e c r e t i n g )
g l a n d s
w i t h i n
t h e
e y e l i d s .
T h e
c o n d i t i o n
i s
c a u s e d b y e x c e s s i v e o r u n u s u a l l y t h i c k
g l a n d u l a r s e c r e t i o n s , w h i c h r e s u l t i n a n
o v e r g r o w t h o f b a c t e r i a o n t h e e y e l i d s .
C o n d i t i o n s t h a t c a n i n c r e a s e t h e s e c r e -
t i o n s
i n c l u d e
s k i n
d i s o r d e r s
a f f e c t i n g
t h e f a c e ( s u c h a s
a c n e
o r
r o s a c e a
),
a l l e r -
g i c r e a c t i o n s , a n d t h e h o r m o n a l c h a n g e s
t h a t o c c u r i n a d o l e s c e n c e .
S y m p t o m s o f m
e i b o m i a n i t i s i n c l u d e
s w e l l i n g o f t h e e y e l i d e d g e s , b r i e f b l u r -
r i n g o f t h e v i s i o n d u e t o o i l y t e a r s , a n d
f r e q u e n t
s t y e s
.
C a r e f u l c l e a n s i n g o f t h e
e y e l i d s
m a y
r e l i e v e
t h e
s y m p t o m s .
A n t i b i o t i c
e y e
o i n t m e n t
m a y
b e
p r e -
s c r i b e d t o c l e a r u p i n f e c t i o n .
M e ig ’s s y n d ro m e
A r a r e c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h a t u m o u r o f
a n
o v a r y
i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y
a s c i t e s
( a n
a c c u m u l a t i o n o f f l u i d i n t h e a b d o m e n )
a n d a
p l e u r a l e f f u s i o n
( f l u i d a r o u n d o n e
o f t h e l u n g s ) . T h e f l u i d u s u a l l y d i s a p -
p e a r s w h e n t h e t u m o u r i s r e m o v e d .
M
495
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