MORTALITY
Blood smear in mononucleosis
The large cell with a three-lobed nucleus,
surrounded by many red blood cells, is an atypical
lymphocyte (it is bigger than normal). Such cells
are a feature ofmononucleosis.
m o n o rc h is m
The presence of only one
t e s t i s .
The
most probable causes of monorchism
are surgery (see
o r c h i d e c t o m y )
and
c o n -
g e n i t a l
absence of the testis.
m o n o s a c c h a rid e
An alternative term for a simple sugar
(see
c a r b o h y d r a t e s ) .
m o n o s o d iu m g lu ta m a te
A
f o o d a d d i t i v e
that is used as a flavour
enhancer and seasoning in food. Mono-
sodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium
salt of an
a m i n o a c i d .
Some individuals who eat foods that
contain MSG develop a short-lived ill-
ness, w hich involves pain in the neck
and chest,
p a l p i t a t i o n s ,
feeling hot, and
a headache.
m o n o s p o t te st
A blood test that is used in the diagno-
sis of infectious mononucleosis
(see
m o n o n u c l e o s i s , i n f e c t i o u s ) .
It is designed
to detect certain antibodies (proteins
produced by the immune system to
fight infection) that are associated with
this disorder.
m o n o u n s a tu ra te d
A term that is used to describe a form
of unsaturated fatty acid that is found
in certain oils that are used for food,
such as olive oil and groundnut oil.
(See
f a t s a n d o i l s . )
m o n o z y g o tic tw in s
The medical term for identical twins.
(See
t w i n s . )
m o n s p u b is
The rounded area over the front of the
p u b i c b o n e .
The mons pubis is formed
by a pad of fatty tissue underneath the
skin. It becomes covered w ith pubic
hair at
p u b e r t y
.
M o n te g g ia ’s fra c tu re
Fracture of the
u l n a
(the bone on the
inner side of the forearm) just below
the elbow, together with dislocation of
the
r a d i u s
(the outer forearm bone)
from the elbow joint.
m o n te lu k a s t
A specific
l e u k o t r i e n e r e c e p t o r a n t a g o n i s t
d r u g
used
in
the
management
of
asthma. It is not, however, used to treat
acute attacks.
M o n tg o m e ry ’s tu b e rc le s
Raised sebaceous glands on the
a r e o l a
(the pigmented area around the nip-
ple). The glands tend to become more
obvious during pregnancy.
m o o d
See
a f f e c t
;
a f f e c t i v e d i s o r d e r s .
m o o d s w in g s
Rapid changes in mood. Milder forms
of mood swings, such as changes from
a calm state to a state of anxiety, irri-
tability, or tearfulness, may occur in
women suffering from
p r e m e n s t r u a l s y n -
d r o m e
or those w ho are going through
the
m e n o p a u s e .
Extreme mood swings,
from
m a n i a
(abnormal overactivity and
elation)
to
d e p r e s s i o n ,
are associated
with
bipolar
affective
disorder
(see
m a n i c - d e p r e s s i v e i l l n e s s ) .
m o o n fa ce
Rounding of the face that is due to
abnormally high levels of natural corti-
costeroid hormones in the body, as in
C u s h i n g ’s
s y n d r o m e ,
or
to
prolonged
courses of
c o r t i c o s t e r o i d d r u g s .
Moraxella
A group of bacteria that exist in a var-
iety of mammals, including humans.
The bacteria can cause a wide range of
disorders; for example, the bacterium
M
o r a x e l l a
l a c u n a t a
may cause
c o n j u n c t -
i v i t i s
and infections of the
c o r n e a
(the
transparent covering over the front of
the eye), and M.
c a t a r r h a l i s
occasionally
causes
o t i t i s m e d i a
(infection of the m id-
dle ear) and certain infections of the
upper respiratory tract, such as
s i n u s i t i s
and
b r o n c h i t i s .
m o rb id a n a to m y
Also called pathological anatomy,
the
study
of the structural changes that
occur in body tissues as a result of dis-
ease, especially the changes that are
visible to the naked eye.
m o rb id ity
The state of being diseased. In medical
statistics, the morbidity ratio is the pro-
portion of diseased people to healthy
people in a particular community.
m o rb illi
Another name for
m e a s l e s .
m o rn in g -a fte r p ill
See
c o n t r a c e p t i o n , e m e r g e n c y .
m o rn in g s ic k n e s s
See
v o m i t i n g i n p r e g n a n c y .
M o ro re fle x
An automatic movement in infants (see
r e f l e x , p r i m i t i v e )
in w hich the arms are
flung outwards before coming together
in an embracing movement, the head
jerks backwards, and the legs extend.
The Moro reflex occurs in response to a
stimulus such as the head being allowed
to fall back momentarily.
m o rp h in e
An opioid
a n a l g e s i c d r u g
derived from
the opium poppy. Morphine is given to
relieve severe pain caused by
m y o c a r d i a l
i n f a r c t i o n
(heart attack), major surgery,
serious injury, and
c a n c e r .
It blocks the
transmission of pain signals at sites
called opiate receptors in the
b r a i n
and
s p i n a l c o r d .
The drug also induces a
sense of wellbeing or euphoria.
Side effects include drowsiness, dizzi-
ness,
constipation,
nausea,
vomiting,
and confusion. Long-term use of m or-
phine may lead to
d r u g d e p e n d e n c e ,
with
severe flulike symptoms when the drug
is withdrawn (see
w i t h d r a w a l s y n d r o m e ) .
m o rp h o e a
A condition in w hich one or more
hard, flat patches develop on the skin. It
is a type of
s c l e r o d e r m a
but is confined
to the skin. Although harmless, the con-
dition can be disfiguring.
m o rta lity
The death rate - the number of deaths per
100,000
(or 10,000 or 1,000) of the
population per year. Mortality is often cal-
culated for specific groups. For example,
i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y
measures the deaths of live-
born infants during the first year of life.
Standardized mortality is a measure
that allows comparison of the death rate
in, for example, a particular occupa-
tional or socioeconomic group with
that for the entire population. (See also
l i f e e x p e c t a n c y
;
m a t e r n a l m o r t a l i t y
.)
M
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