NUCLEAR ENERGY
DISORDERSOFTHE NOSE
The nose is susceptible to a wide range
of disorders. Infections and allergic
conditions, leading to stuffiness or
sneezing, are common. Due to its
prominent position, the nose is also
prone to injury.
Infection
The common cold (see
c o l d , c o m m o n ) ,
a
viral infection, causes inflammation of
the lining of the nasal passages and
excessive production of mucus, leading
to nasal congestion. Small
b o i l s
(infected hair follicles) sometimes
occur just within the nostril, where
they may cause pain. Backward spread
of infection from the nose may cause
c a v e r n o u s s i n u s t h r o m b o s i s ,
a serious
condition that, without antibiotic
drugs, can be fatal.
Tumours
Noncancerous tumours of blood
vessels, known as
h a e m a n g i o m a s ,
may
affect the nasal cavity in babies. Many
disappear spontaneously before puberty.
B a s a l c e l l c a r c i n o m a
and
s q u a m o u s c e l l
c a r c i n o m a
(types of skin cancer) may
occur in or around the nostril. The nose
may also be invaded by cancers
originating in the sinuses.
Injury
Because of its prominent position, the nose
is also particularly prone to injury. Fracture
of the nasal bones (see
n o s e , b r o k e n )
is a
common sports injury that can lead to
deformity and may require corrective
surgery.
N o s e b l e e d s
are also common,
particularly in children; they may be caused
by fragile blood vessels, infection of the
lining of the nose, or a blow to the nose.
Drugs
Repeated sniffing of cocaine interferes
with the blood supply to the mucous
membrane lining the nose and can cause
perforation of the nasal septum. Persistent
taking of snuff can irritate or damage the
nasal lining.
Allergies
Hay fever (see
r h i n i t i s , a l l e r g i c )
is one
of the most common allergies and may
be brought on by a reaction to various
allergens, such as pollens, animal
dander, house mites, or fungal spores.
Obstruction
A
n a s a l p o l y p
(a projection of swollen
mucous membrane) may block a nostril,
causing a feeling of congestion.Young
children frequently insert foreign bodies,
such as beads, peas, or pebbles, into their
nostrils. Objects can become stuck,
leading to obstruction and discharge.
INVESTIGATION
To inspect the inside of the nose, the
doctor uses a speculum in order to
open up the nostrils. If a fracture is
suspected, X-rays are taken. If cancer
is suspected, a nasal endoscopy and
a biopsy are performed.
u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d b y s e v e r e s w e l l i n g
o f o v e r l y i n g s o f t t i s s u e . A f r a c t u r e d n o s e
i s p a i n f u l a n d r e m a i n s t e n d e r f o r a b o u t
t h r e e w e e k s a f t e r t h e i n j u r y .
TREATMENT
R e s e t t i n g
i s
u s u a l l y
c a r r i e d
o u t
e i t h e r
b e f o r e t h e s w e l l i n g h a s s t a r t e d o r w h e n
i t h a s s u b s i d e d , u s u a l l y a b o u t t e n d a y s
a f t e r t h e i n j u r y . O c c a s i o n a l l y , a d i s p l a c e d
b r i d g e c a n b e c a r e f u l l y m a n i p u l a t e d i n t o
p o s i t i o n u n d e r a l o c a l a n a e s t h e t i c ( s e e
a n a e s t h e s i a ,
l o c a l
) .
H o w e v e r ,
a
g e n e r a l
a n a e s t h e t i c
( s e e
a n a e s t h e s i a , g e n e r a l
)
i s
u s u a l l y n e e d e d . A p l a s t e r s p l i n t i s s o m e -
t i m e s r e q u i r e d d u r i n g h e a l i n g .
CT scan showing broken nose
In this three-dimensional image of the skull, a
fracture of the nasal bone is clearly visible. The
damaged bone is asymmetrical and has a
V-shaped notch on the right-hand side.
n o s e re s h a p in g
S e e
r h i n o p l a s t y
.
n o s o c o m ia l
A
t e r m
t h a t
m e a n s
a s s o c i a t e d
w i t h
h o s p i t a l s . A
n o s o c o m
i a l
i n f e c t i o n ,
f o r
e x a m p l e , i s a n i n f e c t i o n a c q u i r e d b y a
p a t i e n t d u r i n g a s t a y i n h o s p i t a l .
n o tifia b le d is e a s e s
M
e d i c a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t m u s t b e r e p o r t -
e d
t o
t h e
l o c a l
h e a l t h
a u t h o r i t y . T h e
n o t i f i c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m -
f u l
i n f e c t i o u s
d i s e a s e s
e n a b l e s
p u b l i c
h e a l t h p h y s i c i a n s t o m
o n i t o r a n d c o n -
t r o l t h e s p r e a d o f i n f e c t i o n a n d r e c o r d s
t o b e k e p t o f d i s e a s e p a t t e r n s .
E x a m p l e s o f n o t i f i a b l e i n f e c t i o u s d i s -
e a s e s a r e
f o o d p o i s o n i n g ,
v i r a l
h e p a t i t i s ,
m e a s l e s ,
m a l a r i a ,
p e r t u s s i s
( w h o o p i n g
c o u g h ) ,
t e t a n u s , t u b e r c u l o s i s , m e n i n g i t i s ,
m u m p s ,
a n d
r u b e l l a
( G e r m a n m e a s l e s ) .
S i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o c o l l e c t e d o n
c a n c e r s ,
o c c u p a t i o n a l
d i s e a s e s ,
b i r t h
d e f e c t s , a n d o t h e r n o n i n f e c t i o u s h e a l t h
p r o b l e m s . ( S e e a l s o
p r e s c r i b e d d i s e a s e s . )
N REM s le e p
T h e
a b b r e v i a t i o n
f o r
n o n r a p i d
e y e
m o v e m e n t
s l e e p ,
t h e
p e r i o d
o f s l e e p
d u r i n g w h i c h t h e b r a i n i s l e s s a c t i v e .
N R E M
s l e e p
o c c u r s
a l t e r n a t e l y
w i t h
R E M
s l e e p
t h r o u g h o u t
t h e
n i g h t .
A n
a v e r a g e
c y c l e
o f s l e e p
i s
m a d e
u p
o f
t h r e e - q u a r t e r s
N R E M
s l e e p
a n d
o n e -
q u a r t e r R E M s l e e p .
N SA ID
T h e
a b b r e v i a t i o n
f o r
n o n s t e r o i d a l a n t i -
i n f l a m m a t o r y d r u g s .
NSU
T h e
a b b r e v i a t i o n
f o r
n o n s p e c i f i c
u r e -
t h r i t i s ,
t h e
f o r m
e r
t e r m
f o r
n o n -
g o n o c o c c a l u r e t h r i t i s
.
n u c h a l th ic k n e s s s c a n
U l t r a s o u n d s c a n n i n g
p e r f o r m e d i n
e a r l y
p r e g n a n c y i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y f e t u s e s a t
h i g h r i s k o f
c h r o m o s o m a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s
,
s u c h a s
D o w n ’s s y n d r o m e
. T h e
s c a n i n v e s -
t i g a t e s t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e n u c h a l f o l d ,
a n a r e a o f s k i n a t t h e b a c k o f t h e n e c k .
E x c e s s i v e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e n u c h a l f o l d
i s a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e m a y b e c h r o -
m
o s o m a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s .
n u c le a r e n e rg y
T h e e n e r g y t h a t i s r e l e a s e d a s a r e s u l t
o f c h a n g e s i n t h e n u c l e i ( s e e
n u c l e u s
)
o f
a t o m s . N u c l e a r e n e r g y i s a l s o k n o w n a s
a t o m i c
e n e r g y
a n d
i t
i s
p r i n c i p a l l y
r e l e a s e d i n t h e f o r m o f h e a t , l i g h t , a n d
i o n i z i n g
r a d i a t i o n
,
s u c h a s g a m m a r a y s .
N
551
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