NYSTATIN
FOOD SOURCES OF ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS
The tables list a selection of foods that
are good sources of carbohydrate,
protein, fat or fibre, together with the
amount of the nutrient concerned in
100 g of each food. The figures given
PROTEIN
Food
Protein content
(g of protein per
100g of food)
Yeast extract
40
Beef, lean, roast
31
Tuna,canned
28
Wheatgerm
27
Cheese, cheddar
26
Chicken, lean, roast
26
Peanuts, shelled, roasted
24
Cod, grilled
17
Soya beans
14
Cottage cheese, low-fat
13
Eggs, boiled
12
Brazil nuts
12
Tofu (soft)
9
Chick peas
9
CARBOHYDRATE
Food
Carbohydrate content
(g of carbohydrate
per 100g of food)
Sugar, white
100
Sugar, brown
100
Rice, white, uncooked
87
Cornflakes
87
Pasta, uncooked
84
Brown rice
81
Honey
81
Flour, white
80
Apricots, dried, stoned
67
Chocolate, milk
57
Beans, haricot, uncooked
45
Bread, white
45
Bread, wholemeal
37
Prunes
34
here are averages, because the exact
nutrient content of many foods
depends on variable factors such as
the method of preparation. (See also
v i t a m i n s ; m i n e r a l s . )
FAT
Food
Fat content
(g of fat per
100g of food)
Coconut oil (saturated fat)
92
Butter and margarine
81
Brazil nuts, shelled
67
Peanuts, shelled, roasted
49
Sausage, pork, cooked
42
Beef, lean with fat, roast
40
Low-fat spread
39
Cream, whipping
38
Cheese, cheddar
32
Chocolate, milk
30
Egg yolk
30
Olive oil (saturated fat)
14
Corn oil (saturated fat)
13
9
FIBRE
Food
Fibre content
(g of fibre per
100g of food)
Bran
44
Apricots, dried, stoned
24
Prunes
14
Peas, boiled
12
Blackcurrants
9
Brazil nuts
9
Bread, wholemeal
9
Peanuts, shelled, roasted
8
Sweetcorn
6
Celery
5
Tofu
4
Broccoli
4
Lentils
2
Bread, white
2
n y s ta g m u s
A c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e r e i s i n v o l u n -
t a r y
m o v e m e n t
o f
t h e
eyes
.
T h i s
m o v e m e n t i s u s u a l l y h o r i z o n t a l , b u t c a n
b e
v e r t i c a l
o r
r o t a t o r y .
I n
a l m o s t
a l l
c a s e s , b o t h e y e s m o v e t o g e t h e r .
TYPES
I n t h e m o s t c o m m o n t y p e , j e r k y n y s t a g -
m u s , t h e e y e s r e p e a t e d l y m o v e s l o w l y i n
o n e
d i r e c t i o n
a n d t h e n
r a p i d l y i n t h e
o t h e r . T h i s m a y a l s o o c c u r a s a n o r m a l
e f f e c t o f a t t e m p t i n g t o f o l l o w a s e q u e n c e
o f o b j e c t s r a p i d l y p a s s i n g t h e e y e s , s u c h
a s w h e n l o o k i n g o u t o f t h e w i n d o w o f
a m o v i n g v e h i c l e . T h i s p h e n o m
e n o n i s
k n o w n a s “ o p t o k i n e t i c n y s t a g m u s ” . L e s s
c o m m o n l y ,
n y s t a g m u s
i s
“ p e n d u l a r ” ,
w i t h
t h e
e y e s
m o v i n g
e v e n l y
u p
a n d
d o w n o r f r o m s i d e t o s i d e .
CAUSES
N y s t a g m u s m a y b e c o n g e n i t a l ( p r e s e n t
a t b i r t h ) ,
i n w h i c h
c a s e
t h e
c a u s e
i s
u n k n o w n . B e c a u s e a s t e a d y g a z e i s i m p o s -
s i b l e , t h e r e i s a l m o s t a l w a y s a m o d e r a t e t o
s e v e r e d e f e c t o f v i s u a l a c u i t y . T h e c o n d i -
t i o n a l s o o c c u r s i n
a l b i n i s m
a n d a s a r e s u l t
o f a n y v e r y s e v e r e d e f e c t o f v i s i o n p r e s e n t
a t b i r t h , s u c h a s c o n g e n i t a l
c a t a r a c t
.
P e r s i s t e n t n y s t a g m u s
a p p e a r i n g l a t e r
i n l i f e u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e s a n e r v o u s s y s -
t e m d i s o r d e r ( s u c h a s
m u l t i p l e s c l e r o s i s
,
a
b r a i n t u m o u r
,
o r a n
a l c o h o l - r e l a t e d d i s -
o r d e r
) ,
o r a
d i s o r d e r
o f t h e b a l a n c i n g
m e c h a n i s m i n t h e i n n e r e a r . A d u l t - o n s e t
n y s t a g m u s
i s
o c c a s i o n a l l y
s e e n
a s
a n
o c c u p a t i o n a l
d i s o r d e r
i n
p e o p l e
w h o
w o r k i n p o o r l i g h t , s u c h a s c o a l m i n e r s .
INVESTIGATION AND TREATMENT
E l e c t r o n y s t a g m o g r a p h y
,
w h i c h i s a m e t h o d
o f r e c o r d i n g
e y e
m o v e m e n t s ,
m a y
b e
u s e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r -
e n t t y p e s o f n y s t a g m u s . T r e a t m e n t i s o f
t h e u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e , i f p o s s i b l e .
n y s ta tin
A n
a n t i f u n g a l d r u g
u s e d i n t h e t r e a t m e n t
o f
c a n d i d i a s i s
( t h r u s h ) . N y s t a t i n m a y b e
t a k e n a s a t a b l e t , l i q u i d , p e s s a r y , c r e a m ,
o r o i n t m e n t a n d c a n b e s a f e l y u s e d d u r -
i n g p r e g n a n c y . H i g h d o s e s t a k e n o r a l l y
m a y c a u s e d i a r r h o e a , n a u s e a , v o m i t i n g ,
a n d a b d o m i n a l p a i n .
N
d i s o r d e r s d u e t o t h e i r t o x i c e f f e c t s . F o r
e x a m p l e ,
t h e
e r g o t
f u n g u s
o n r y e
c a n
c a u s e
e r g o t i s m ,
s y m p t o m s
o f w h i c h
i n c l u d e
g a n g r e n e
( t i s s u e d e a t h ) o f t h e t o e s
a n d f i n g e r s ,
s e i z u r e s
,
a n d m e n t a l d i s o r d e r s .
I n d u s t r i a l p o l l u t a n t s , p e s t i c i d e s , f e r t i -
l i z e r s , a n d v a r i o u s o t h e r c h e m i c a l s m a y
a l s o c o n t a m i n a t e f o o d .
n y m p h o m a n ia
A n
o u t d a t e d
t e r m
f o r
a
c o n d i t i o n
i n
w h i c h
a
w o m a n
h a s
a n
i n s a t i a b l e
a p p e t i t e f o r s e x u a l a c t i v i t y w i t h m a n y
p a r t n e r s . T h e
e q u i v a l e n t
b e h a v i o u r
i n
m
e n i s c a l l e d s a t y r i a s i s o r D o n J u a n i s m .
I t w a s s a i d t o b e c a u s e d b y i n t e n s e
n a r -
c i s s i s m
a n d f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y .
555
previous page 554 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online next page 556 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online Home Toggle text on/off