I
antifungal drugs
COMMON DRUGS
• Amorolfine •Amphotericin •Benzoyl
peroxide •Clotrimazole •Econazole
• Fenticonazole •Fluconazole •Griseofulvin
• Itraconazole •Ketoconazole •Miconazole
• Nystatin •Sulconazole •Terbinafine
• Tioconazole
A group of drugs used to treat infec-
tions caused by
fungi.
Antifungals are
commonly used to treat different types
of
tinea
(including
athlete’s foot
and scalp
ringworm);
candidiasis
(thrush) and rare
infections, such as
cryptococcosis,
that
affect internal organs. Antifungals are
available in various forms, including
tablets, injection, creams, and pessaries.
HOW THEY WORK
Antifungal drugs work by damaging the
cell walls of fungi, causing chemicals
essential for normal cell function and
growth to escape.The fungal cells are un-
able to survive without these chemicals.
SIDE EFFECTS
Topical antifungals rarely cause side
effects but may occasionally increase
skin irritation. Prolonged treatment, by
mouth or injection, of serious fungal
infections
can result in side
effects
including liver or kidney damage.
antigen
A substance that can trigger an
immune
response,
resulting in production of an
antibody
as part of the body’s defence
against infection and disease. Many anti-
gens are foreign proteins such as parts
of microorganisms and toxins or tissues
from another person that have been
used in organ transplants. Sometimes,
harmless substances (such as pollen) are
misidentified by the immune system as
potentially harmful antigens, which res-
ults in an allergic response (see
allergy).
antihistamine drugs
COMMON DRUGS
non-sedating
•Acrivastine •Cetirizine
• Fexofenadine •Loratadine •Mizolastine
sedating
•Azatadine •Brompheniramine
• Chlorphenamine •Clemastine
• Dimenhydrinate •Diphenhydramine
• Diphenylpyraline •Doxylamine
• Promethazine •Trimeprazine •Triprolidine
A group of drugs that block the effects
of
histamine,
a chemical released during
allergic reactions (see
allergy).
Antihistamines are used to treat rashes
such as
urticaria
(hives) and to relieve
sneezing and a runny nose in allergic
ANTIOBESITY DRUGS
rhinitis.
They are also sometimes inclu-
ded in
cough remedies
and
cold remedies,
and they are used as
antiemetic drugs
because
they
suppress the vomiting
reflex. Antihistamines are usually taken
by mouth but may be given by injection
for
anaphylactic shock.
HOW THEY WORK
Antihistamine drugs block the effect of
histamine on tissues such as the skin,
eyes, and nose. Without drug treatment,
histamine dilates small
blood vessels,
resulting in
inflammation
of the sur-
rounding tissue due to leakage of fluid
from
the
circulation.
Antihistamines
also prevent histamine from irritating
nerve fibres, which causes itching.
SIDE EFFECTS
Many antihistamines cause drowsiness,
but newer drugs have little sedative
effect. Other uncommon side effects
include loss of appetite, nausea, dry
mouth, blurred vision, and difficulty in
passing urine.
WARNING
A person should not drive or operate
potentially dangerous machinery while
taking an antihistamine drug unless he
or she is certain that the treatment is
not causing dizziness, drowsiness, or
impaired concentration.
antihypertensive drugs
COMMON DRUGS
ace in hibitors
•Captopril •Cilazapril
• Enalapril •Fosinopril •Lisinopril •Moexipril
• Perindopril •Quinapril •Ramipril
• Trandolapril
alpha-blockers
•Doxazosin •Prazosin
• Terazosin
angiotensin-ii antagonists
•Candesartan
• Irbesartan •Losartan •Valsartan
beta-blockers
•Acebutolol •Atenolol
• Betaxolol •Bisoprolol •Carvedilol •Celiprolol
• Labetalol •Metoprolol •Nadolol •Pindolol
• Propranolol •Sotalol •Timolol
calciu m Channel Blockers
•Amlodipine
• Diltiazem •Nicardipine •Nifedipine
CENTRALLY ACTING HYPERTENSIVES
•Clonidine
• Methyldopa •Moxonidine
d iuretics
•Amiloride •Bendroflumethiazide
• Bumetanide •Chlorothiazide
• Chlortalidone •Cyclopenthiazide
• Ethacrynic acid •Furosemide
• Hydrochlorothiazide
• Hydroflumethiazide •Indapamide
• Metolazone •Spironolactone
• Torasemide •Triamterene •Xipamide
A group of drugs that are used in the
treatment of
hypertension
(high blood
pressure) to prevent complications such
as
stroke, heart failure
(reduced pumping
efficiency of the heart),
myocardial infarc-
tion
(heart attack), and kidney damage.
There are several types of antihyperten-
sive, each one working in a different
way to lower blood pressure.
HOW THEY WORK
Antihypertensive drugs work in a var-
iety of ways to lower blood pressure.
ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-II antag-
onists act on enzymes in the blood to
dilate
blood
vessels;
alpha-blockers
block nerve signals that trigger the con-
striction of blood vessels; beta-blockers
reduce the force of the heartbeat, there-
by lowering the pressure of blood flow;
diuretics increase the amount of salts
and water excreted in the
urine,
thereby
reducing blood volume; calcium chan-
nel blockers and ACE inhibitors control
the size of blood vessels by preventing
constriction of arterial wall muscles;
and centrally acting hypertensives act
on the mechanism in the brain that
controls the size of blood vessels.
SIDE EFFECTS
Side effects depend on the type of anti-
hypertensive used, but all types can
cause dizziness if the blood pressure
falls excessively.
WARNING
The dosage of antihypertensives should
not
be
reduced
or
the
treatment
stopped without first consulting a doc-
tor,
who
will
supervise
a
gradual
reduction in dosage. Abrupt cessation of
the drug could cause a dangerous rise
in blood pressure.
anti-inflammatory drugs
Drugs
that
reduce
inflammation.
The
main groups of these drugs are
cortico-
steroid
drugs
and
nonsteroidal
anti-
inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs). (See also
analgesic drugs.)
antimalarial drugs
Drugs used to treat
malaria.
One anti-
malarial drug,
chloroquine,
is also used to
treat arthritis.
antimotility drugs
See
antidiarrhoeal drugs.
antimuscarinic drugs
See
anticholinergic drugs.
antiobesity drugs
A group of drugs that includes
appetite
suppressants
and
orlistat,
a drug that acts
on the gastrointestinal tract to prevent
the digestion of fats.
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