ANTI-OESTROGEN DRUGS
A
anti-oestrogen drugs
A group of drugs that oppose the action
of the hormone
oestrogen.
The most
important of these drugs is
tamoxifen,
which is used in the treatment of cer-
tain breast cancers.
antioxidant
A type of chemical that neutralizes
potentially damaging oxidizing molec-
ules known as
free radicals
(molecules
that bind to and destroy body cells).
Some antioxidants occur naturally in
the body; others (vitamin C, vitamin E,
and beta-carotene,
for example) are
obtained through food intake or from
dietary supplements.
antiperspirant
COMMON DRUGS
•Aluminium chloride
A substance applied to the skin in the
form of a lotion, cream, or spray in order
to reduce sweating. High concentrations
are sometimes used to treat
hyperhidro-
sis
(abnormally heavy sweating).
HOW IT WORKS
An antiperspirant reduces the produc-
tion of sweat by the
sweat glands
and
blocks the ducts that drain sweat on to
the surface of the skin.
SIDE EFFECTS
Antiperspirants may cause skin irrita-
tion, particularly if they are used on
broken skin. (See also
deodorants.)
antiphospholipid syndrome
See
Hughes’ syndrome.
antiplatelet drugs
COMMON DRUGS
•Abciximab •Aspirin •Dipyridamole
• Clopidogrel • Ticlopidine
Drugs that reduce the tendency of
plate-
lets
to stick together to form blood clots
(see
blood clotting)
when blood flow in
the arteries is disrupted. Antiplatelet
drugs reduce the risk of
thromboembolism
(in which a clot breaks off and is carried
in the bloodstream to lodge elsewhere
in the body), which can cause potenti-
ally fatal disorders such as a
myocardial
infarction
(heart attack) or
stroke.
Aspirin
and dipyridamole are com-
monly used antiplatelet drugs. Others,
such as ticlopidine, are used specifically
to protect against the stroke or forma-
tion of blood
clots in the
coronary
arteries
in people who have had a stroke
or heart attack or have
angina
.
antipruritic drugs
COMMON DRUGS
an tihistam in es
•Antazoline •Diphenhydramine
• Trimeprazine
co rtico steroids
•Hydrocortisone
local anaesthetics
•Tetracaine (amethocaine)
• Benzocaine •Lignocaine
EMOLLIENT AND COOLING PREPARATIONS
• Aqueous cream •Calamine lotion
• Cold cream •Emulsifying ointment
others
•Colestyramine •Doxepin
Drugs that are used to relieve persistent
itching
(pruritus),
including
pruritus
that occurs as a result of a specific con-
dition. For example, colestyramine (a
lipid-lowering drug)
is used to relieve
pruritus associated with primary
biliary
cirrhosis.
Antipruritic
drugs
can
be
applied as creams and
emollients
and
may contain
corticosteroid drugs
,
antihist-
amine drugs,
or
local anaesthetics.
Oral
antihistamines may also be used to
relieve itching.
HOW THEY WORK
Irritation of the skin causes the release
of substances, such as histamine, that
cause the blood vessels to dilate and
fluid to accumulate under the skin,
which
results
in
inflammation
and
itching. Antipruritic drugs work either
by reducing inflammation, and there-
fore itching, or by numbing the nerve
impulses
that
transmit
sensation
to
the brain.
SIDE EFFECTS
Prolonged or heavy use of any antipru-
ritic, especially antihistamine and local
anaesthetic creams, may lead to further
skin irritation. Oral antihistamines may
cause
drowsiness.
Prolonged
use
of
potent topical corticosteroids may result
in permanent skin changes, most com-
monly thinning of the skin.
antipsychotic drugs
COMMON DRUGS
phenothiazines
•Chlorpromazine
• Fluphenazine •Levomepromazine
(methotrimeprazine) •Pericyazine
• Perphenazine •Pipotiazine •Thioridazine
• Trifluoperazine
butyrophenones
•Benperidol •Droperidol
• Haloperidol
others
•Amisulpride •Clozapine
• Flupentixol •Olanzapine •Pimozide
• Quetiapine •Risperidone •Zotepine
• Zuclopenthixol
A group of drugs used to treat
psychoses
(mental
disorders
involving
loss
of
contact with reality), particularly
schizo-
phrenia
and
mania
(abnormal elation
and overactivity)
in bipolar disorder
(see
manic-depressive illness).
Antipsy-
chotic drugs may also be used to sedate
people who are suffering from other
mental disorders (such as
dementia
) and
who are very agitated or aggressive.
HOW THEY WORK
Most
antipsychotic
drugs
block the
action of
dopamine,
a chemical that
stimulates nerve activity in the brain.
Antipsychotic
drugs
include
pheno-
thiazine drugs,
butyrophenones such as
haloperidol,
and
several
new
drugs
including risperidone.
SIDE EFFECTS
Antipsychotic drugs can cause drowsi-
ness,
lethargy,
dyskinesia
(abnormal
muscular movements), and
parkinson-
ism.
Other possible side effects include
dry mouth, blurred vision, and diffi-
culty in passing urine. However, newer
drugs may have fewer side effects when
used long term.
antipyretic drugs
Drugs that reduce fever. Examples of
antipyretic drugs include
paracetamol
,
aspirin,
and
other
non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs.
antiretroviral drugs
COMMON DRUGS
NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS
• Didanosine •Lamivudine •Stavudine
• Zalcitabine •Zidovudine (AZT)
protease in h ibitors
•Indinavir •Nelfinavir
• Ritonavir •Saquinavir
NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE
in hibitors
•Efavirenz •Nevirapine
Drugs that are used to slow or halt
the spread of viruses (see
retrovirus)
in
individuals who have
HIV
infection and
AIDS.
There are three main types of
antiretroviral drug: nucleoside reverse
transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside
reverse
transcriptase
inhibitors
and
protease inhibitors. A combination of
antiretroviral
drugs
from
different
groups is often used.
HOW THEY WORK
Antiretroviral drugs work by interfering
with the action of enzymes used by the
virus to produce genetic material.
SIDE EFFECTS
Antiretroviral drugs can have a range
of side effects, including nausea, vomit-
ing, diarrhoea, tiredness, and a variety
of effects on blood chemistry, partic-
ularly those that involve fats. (See also
antiviral drugs.)
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