PATHOLOGICAL
P
PATERNITY TESTING USING DNA ANALYSIS
DNA analysis (commonly referred to as genetic fingerprinting) is replacing older
techniques of paternity testing because it gives a decisive result in more cases.
Blood samples are taken from the mother, child, and possible father, and some
DNA (hereditary material) from each is specially processed.
PATERNITY ESTABLISHED
M
C
F
M
C
F
M
C
F
1
III
1
II
1
II
Nil II
II
II II
II
1
III
1
II
1
T
11
1 1
1
11
11 1111
11
l III
l II
l
II
l
II II
II
IIII
II
Each person’s DNA has a
1
unique banding pattern, or
“fingerprint”, detectable by
X-rays after the processing.
A child’s DNA bands
2
come from the biological
parents. First the bands from
the mother are identified.
The other bands are
3
compared with the
suspected father’s bands. Here
they match, proving paternity.
PATERNITY DISPROVED
M
C
F
M
C
F
M
C
F
mmm
----- ►
-----
H
____> —
=
=
_______
The mother’s, the child’s,
1
and the suspected father’s
DNA have different banding
patterns, shown above.
Half the child’s DNA bands
2
can be seen to have come
from the mother, as in the
example above.
The other bands are not
3
shared by the suspected
father, meaning he is notthe
biological father.
Key M = Mother
C = Child
F = Father
p a th o lo g ic a l
R e l a t i n g t o d i s e a s e o r t o i t s s t u d y ( s e e
p a t h o lo g y ).
p a th o lo g ic a l d ia g n o s is
A
m e t h o d
o f
d ia g n o s is
i n
w h i c h
d i s e a s e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h e x a m i -
n a t i o n
o f
c e l l s
( s e e
c y t o p a t h o lo g y ),
t i s s u e s
( s e e
h is t o p a t h o lo g y ),
o r
b o d y
f l u i d s . A c l i n i c a l d i a g n o s i s , b a s e d o n a
p a t i e n t ’s
s y m p t o m s
a n d
a
p h y s i c a l
e x a m i n a t i o n , i s a l s o u n d e r t a k e n .
p a th o lo g ic a l fra c tu re
F ra c tu re
o f a b o n e w e a k e n e d b y d i s e a s e ,
s u c h
a s
b y
c e r t a i n
f o r m s
o f
c a n c e r
,
o s t e o p o r o s is ,
a n d
P a g e t ’s d is e a s e .
p a th o lo g y
T h e
s t u d y
o f d i s e a s e ,
a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y
i t s c a u s e s , m
e c h a n i s m s , a n d e f f e c t s o n
t h e b o d y . T h e s t u d y o f d i s e a s e - i n d u c e d
c h a n g e s i n c e l l s i s c a l l e d
c y t o p a t h o lo g y
;
t h e s t u d y o f s u c h c h a n g e s i n b o d y t i s -
s u e s i s
c a l l e d
h is to p a t h o lo g y .
A d o c t o r
w h o
s p e c i a l i z e s
i n
t h e s e
s u b j e c t s
i s
c a l l e d a p a t h o l o g i s t .
P a t h o l o g i s t s
c a r r y
o u t
l a b o r a t o r y
s t u d i e s
o f c e l l s
a n d
t i s s u e s
t h a t
h e l p
o t h e r
d o c t o r s
t o
r e a c h
a c c u r a t e
d i a g -
n o s e s ,
a n d
t h e y
a l s o
s u p e r v i s e
o t h e r
l a b o r a t o r y p e r s o n n e l i n t h e t e s t i n g a n d
m
i c r o s c o p i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f b l o o d a n d
o t h e r b o d y f l u i d s . I n a d d i t i o n , p a t h o l o -
g i s t s c o n d u c t
a u t o p s ie s
( p h y s i c a l e x a m -
i n a t i o n s o f d e a d p e o p l e ) t o
d e t e r m i n e
c a u s e s
o f d e a t h a n d t o
d e t e r m i n e t h e
e f f e c t s t h a t a d i s e a s e o r a t r e a t m e n t h a s
h a d o n t h e b o d y .
p a th o lo g y , c e llu la r
A l s o
c a l l e d
c y t o p a t h o l o g y ,
t h e
b r a n c h
o f
c y t o lo g y
c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f
d i s e a s e o n c e l l s .
p a th o lo g y , c h e m ic a l
A n o t h e r n a m e f o r c l i n i c a l
b io c h e m is try ,
w h i c h i s t h e s t u d y o f a b n o r m a l i t i e s t h a t
o c c u r i n t h e c h e m i s t r y o f d i s e a s e d b o d y
t i s s u e s a n d f l u i d s .
p a th o p h y s io lo g y
T h e s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s e a s e o n
b o d y f u n c t i o n s .
-p a th y
A s u f f i x t h a t i s u s e d t o d e n o t e a d i s e a s e
o r d i s o r d e r .
P a u l- B u n n e ll te st
A t y p e o f b l o o d t e s t , a l s o c a l l e d t h e h e t -
e r o p h i l a g g l u t i n a t i o n t e s t , t h a t i s u s e d t o
d e t e c t
i n f e c t i o n w i t h
t h e E p s t e i n - B a r r
v i r u s , w h i c h c a u s e s g l a n d u l a r f e v e r ( s e e
m o n o n u c le o s is , in f e c t io u s ) .T h e
P a u l - B u n -
n e l l
t e s t
i n v o l v e s
d e t e c t i n g
p a r t i c u l a r
a n t ib o d ie s
( p r o t e i n s
p r o d u c e d
b y
t h e
i m m u n e s y s t e m t o c o m b a t t h e v i r u s ) i n
a s a m p l e o f b l o o d .
P C R
T h e
a b b r e v i a t i o n
f o r
p o ly m e ra s e c h a in
re a c tio n .
p e a k -flo w m e te r
A p i e c e o f e q u i p m e n t t h a t m e a s u r e s t h e
m a x i m u m s p e e d a t w h i c h a i r c a n f l o w
o u t o f t h e l u n g s . A p e a k - f l o w m e t e r i s
u s e f u l i n a s s e s s i n g t h e s e v e r i t y o f
b ro n -
c h o s p a s m
( c o n s t r i c t i o n o f t h e a i r w a y s i n
t h e
l u n g s ) ,
b e c a u s e
n a r r o w e d
a i r w a y s
s l o w
t h e
r a t e
a t
w h i c h
a i r
c a n
b e
e x p e l l e d
f r o m
t h e
l u n g s . A p e a k - f l o w
m e t e r i s m o s t c o m m o n l y u s e d t o d i a g -
n o s e
a sth m a .
I n
p e o p l e
w h o
a l r e a d y
h a v e t h e d i s o r d e r , i t i s u s e d t o m o n i t o r
t h e i r
c o n d i t i o n
a n d
a s s e s s
h o w
t h e y
r e s p o n d t o t r e a t m e n t .
T h e p e a k f l o w i s m e a s u r e d b y t a k i n g
i n a d e e p b r e a t h a n d b r e a t h i n g o u t w i t h
t h e
m a x i m u m
f o r c e
p o s s i b l e
t h r o u g h
t h e m o u t h p i e c e . T h e m e t e r h a s a p o i n t -
e r a n d a s c a l e o n t h e s i d e ; t h e e x p e l l e d
b r e a t h m o v e s t h e p o i n t e r t o g i v e a r e a d -
i n g
o n
t h e
s c a l e
- t h e
h i g h e r
t h e
r e a d i n g , t h e g r e a t e r t h e s p e e d a t w h i c h
t h e a i r i s t r a v e l l i n g .
592
previous page 591 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online next page 593 BMA A Z Family Medical Encyclopedia   2004 read online Home Toggle text on/off