PITUITARY GLAND
LOCATION OF PINEAL GLAND
The pineal gland is situated in
the brain, below the rear part
of the corpus callosum.
p in g u e c u la
A s m a l l , n o n c a n c e r o u s , y e l l o w i s h s p o t
t h a t
o c c u r s
o n
t h e
c o n ju n c tiv a
o v e r
t h e w h i t e
o f t h e
e y e . T h e s e s p o t s a r e
c o m
m o n i n e l d e r l y p e o p l e a n d m a y b e
r e m o v e d p u r e l y f o r c o s m e t i c r e a s o n s . I f
a p i n g u e c u l a e n c r o a c h e s o n t h e c o r n e a ,
i t m a y l e a d t o
p te ry g iu m .
p in k -e y e
A c o m
m
o n n a m e f o r
c o n ju n c t iv it is
.
p in n a
T h e f l e s h y p a r t o f t h e o u t e r e a r , c o n s i s t -
i n g o f a f l a p o f c a r t i l a g e a n d s k i n . I t i s
a l s o c a l l e d t h e a u r i c l e .
p in s -a n d -n e e d le s
A t i n g l i n g o r p r i c k l y f e e l i n g i n a n a r e a
o f s k i n t h a t i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
n u m b n e s s
a n d ,
s o m e t i m e s ,
a
b u r n -
i n g f e e l i n g . T h e m e d i c a l t e r m f o r t h i s
p h e n o m
e n o n i s
p a r a e s t h e s i a . T r a n s i e n t
p i n s - a n d - n e e d l e s i s d u e t o a t e m p o r a r y
d i s t u r b a n c e i n t h e c o n d u c t i o n o f n e r v e
s i g n a l s f r o m t h e s k i n t o t h e b r a i n . P e r s i s -
t e n t p i n s - a n d - n e e d l e s m a y b e c a u s e d b y a
n e r v e d i s o r d e r , o r
n e u ro p a th y .
p in ta
A b a c t e r i a l s k i n i n f e c t i o n , c a u s e d b y
T
r e
-
p o n e m a
c a r a t e u m
,
o c c u r r i n g
i n
r e m o t e
t r o p i c a l A m e r i c a . A l a r g e s p o t s u r r o u n d -
e d b y s m a l l e r o n e s a p p e a r s o n t h e f a c e ,
n e c k , b u t t o c k s , h a n d s , o r f e e t . A f t e r o n e
t o t w e l v e m o n t h s , i t i s f o l l o w e d b y r e d
s k i n p a t c h e s t h a t t u r n b l u e , t h e n b r o w n ,
a n d
f i n a l l y
w h i t e .
A
p e n ic illin d r u g
o r
te tra c y c lin e
c l e a r s u p
t h e i n f e c t i o n ,
b u t
t h e s k i n m a y b e p e r m a n e n t l y d i s f i g u r e d .
p in w o rm in fe s ta tio n
A n
a l t e r n a t i v e
n a m e
f o r
th re a d w o rm
in f e s t a t io n
.
p io g lita z o n e
A n o r a l h y p o g l y c a e m i c d r u g ( s e e
h y p o g ly -
c a e m ic s , o ra l
) t h a t i s u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n
w i t h o t h e r o r a l h y p o g l y c a e m i c s ( e i t h e r
m e tfo rm in
o r
a
s u l p h o n y l u r e a )
i n
t h e
t r e a t m e n t o f t y p e 2
d ia b e t e s m e llit u s .
P i o -
g l i t a z o n e a c t s b y r e d u c i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o
i n s u l i n i n t h e b o d y t i s s u e s . S i d e e f f e c t s
m a y i n c l u d e g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s ,
w e i g h t g a i n , a n d a n a e m i a .
p ip e ra z in e
A n
a n th e lm in tic d ru g
u s e d t o t r e a t
in f e s -
ta tio n
b y
ro u n d w o rm s
a n d
t h re a d w o rm s
.
P o s s i b l e s i d e e f f e c t s i n c l u d e a b d o m i n a l
p a i n , n a u s e a , v o m i t i n g , a n d d i a r r h o e a .
P irito n
A
b r a n d
n a m e
f o r
t h e
a n t i h i s t a m i n e
d r u g
c h lo r p h e n a m in e
.
p iro x ic a m
A t y p e
o f
n o n s t e ro id a l a n ti-in fla m m a t o ry
d ru g
( N S A I D ) t h a t i s u s e d t o r e l i e v e t h e
s y m p t o m s o f t y p e s o f
a rth rit is ,
a n d t o
r e l i e v e
p a i n
i n
b u r s it is , t e n d in itis ,
a n d
a f t e r
m
i n o r
s u r g e r y .
P o s s i b l e
a d v e r s e
e f f e c t s o f t h e d r u g i n c l u d e n a u s e a , i n -
d i g e s t i o n ,
a b d o m i n a l
p a i n ,
s w o l l e n
a n k l e s ,
p e p t ic u lc e r,
a n d l i v e r p r o b l e m s .
p itu ita ry g la n d
S o m e t i m e s
r e f e r r e d
t o
a s
t h e
m a s t e r
g l a n d , t h e p i t u i t a r y i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t
o f t h e
e n d o c rin e g la n d s
( g l a n d s t h a t r e l e a s e
h o r m o n e s d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e b l o o d s t r e a m ) .
HORMONESSECRETED BYTHE PITUITARYGLAND
Growth hormone
stimulates cell division and
protein synthesis in tissues
such as bone and cartilage,
leading to growth.
Luteinizing and
follicle-stimulating
hormones (LH and FSH)
help control the function
of male and female sex
organs.
Thyroid-stimulating
hormone (TSH)
stimulates the thyroid gland
to secrete various hormones
vital to body metabolism.
Melanocyte-stimulating
hormone (MSH)
controls skin darkening by
stimulating pigment cells
(melanocytes).
Adrenocorticotrophic
hormone (ACTH)
stimulates the adrenal
glands to secrete hormones,
with multiple effects on
metabolism.
Antidiuretic
hormone (ADH)
acts on the kidneys to
decrease water loss in
the urine and thus reduces
urine volume.
Prolactin
stimulates milkproduction,
particularly in response to
the infants’ sucking.
Oxytocin
stimulates contraction of the
uterus during childbirth and
milk release from the breasts.
P
609
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