PNEUMOTHORAX
a n d
s i l i c o s i s ,
c a u s e d
b y
s i l i c a
d u s t .
T h e s e d i s e a s e s p r i m
a r i l y a f f e c t w o r k e r s
o v e r
5 0
y e a r s
o f a g e .
H o w e v e r ,
t h e
i n c i d e n c e i s f a l l i n g d u e t o b e t t e r p r e -
v e n t i v e m e a s u r e s .
SYMPTOMS AND COMPLICATIONS
T h e m a i n s y m p t o m o f p n e u m o c o n i o s i s
i s s h o r t n e s s o f b r e a t h . I n s e v e r e c a s e s ,
c o r p u lm o n a le
( r i g h t - s i d e d h e a r t f a i l u r e
d u e
t o
l u n g
d a m a g e )
o r
e m p h y s e m a
( d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a i r s a c s i n t h e l u n g s )
m a y d e v e l o p . T h e r i s k o f
t u b e r c u lo s is
i s
i n c r e a s e d i n c o a l w o r k e r s ’
p n e u m
o c o -
n i o s i s
a n d
s i l i c o s i s ;
t h e
r i s k
o f
lu n g
c a n c e r
i s i n c r e a s e d i n a s b e s t o s i s . S m o k -
i n g f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s t h e r i s k .
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
P n e u m o c o n i o s i s i s o f t e n d e t e c t e d b y a
c h e s t X -ra y
b e f o r e
s y m p t o m s
d e v e l o p .
D i a g n o s i s i s a l s o b a s e d o n a h i s t o r y o f
e x p o s u r e
t o
d u s t s ,
m e d i c a l
e x a m i n a -
t i o n , a n d
p u lm o n a r y fu n c tio n te sts.
T h e r e i s n o t r e a t m e n t f o r t h e c o n d i -
t i o n
a p a r t
f r o m
t r e a t i n g
a n y
c o m
p l i -
c a t i o n s .
F u r t h e r
e x p o s u r e
t o
a n y
d u s t
m u s t b e a v o i d e d .
p n e u m o c y s tis p n e u m o n ia
A l u n g i n f e c t i o n c a u s e d b y
P n e u m o c y s t i s
c a r i n i i ,
a t y p e o f
p ro to zo a .
P n e u m o c y s t i s
p n e u m o n i a
i s
a n
o p p o rtu n is t ic in fe c tio n
,
w h i c h i s d a n g e r o u s o n l y t o p e o p l e w i t h
i m p a i r e d r e s i s t a n c e t o i n f e c t i o n . I t i s p a r -
t i c u l a r l y
c o m m o n
i n
t h o s e
w i t h
A ID S
.
S y m p t o m s i n c l u d e f e v e r , d r y c o u g h , a n d
s h o r t n e s s o f b r e a t h , a n d m a y l a s t f o r s e v -
e r a l w e e k s o r m o n t h s .
D i a g n o s i s
i s
m a d e
b y
e x a m i n a t i o n
o f
s p u t u m
o r
a
l u n g
b io p s y
( t i s s u e
s a m p l e ) . H i g h
d o s e s o f
a n t ib io t ic d ru g s
( c o m m o n l y c o - t r i m o x a z o l e ) m a y e r a d i -
c a t e t h e i n f e c t i o n ; l o w e r d o s e s a r e u s e d
i n t h e l o n g t e r m t o p r e v e n t i n f e c t i o n i n
p e o p l e a t i n c r e a s e d r i s k .
p n e u m o n e c to m y
S u r g e r y c a r r i e d o u t t o r e m o v e a
lu n g .
p n e u m o n ia
I n f l a m m a t i o n o f t h e l u n g s u s u a l l y d u e
t o i n f e c t i o n . T h e r e a r e t w o m a i n t y p e s :
l o b a r
p n e u m o n i a
a n d
b r o n c h o p n e u -
m o n i a .
L o b a r
p n e u m o n i a
f i r s t
a f f e c t s
o n e
l o b e
o f a
l u n g .
I n
t h e
c o n d i t i o n
b r o n c h o p n e u m
o n i a , i n f l a m m a t i o n i n i -
t i a l l y s t a r t s i n t h e b r o n c h i a n d b r o n c h i o l e s
( a i r w a y s ) , t h e n s p r e a d s t o a f f e c t p a t c h e s
o f t i s s u e i n o n e o r b o t h l u n g s .
CAUSES
P n e u m o n i a i s u s u a l l y c a u s e d b y v a r i o u s
t y p e s
o f i n f e c t i o n .
M o s t
c a s e s
a r e
d u e
e i t h e r t o v i r u s e s , s u c h a s a d e n o v i r u s o r
r e s p i r a t o r y s y n c y t i a l v i r u s , o r t o b a c t e r i a ,
s u c h a s S t r e p t o c o c c u s p n e u m o n i a e , H a e m o -
p h i l u s
i n f l u e n z a e ,
S t a p h y l o c o c c u s
a u r e u s ,
a n d M
y c o p l a s m a p n e u m o n i a e .
A n o t h e r f o r m i s a s p i r a t i o n p n e u m
o -
n i a ,
d u e
t o
a c c i d e n t a l
i n h a l a t i o n
o f
v o m i t .
A s p i r a t i o n
p n e u m
o n i a
u s u a l l y
o c c u r s i n p e o p l e w h o s e c o u g h r e f l e x i s
n o t
f u n c t i o n i n g ,
s u c h
a s
t h o s e
w h o
h a v e d r u n k e x c e s s i v e a m o u n t s o f a l c o -
h o l
o r
t a k e n
c e r t a i n
i l l e g a l
d r u g s ,
o r
p e o p l e w h o h a v e s u f f e r e d a h e a d i n j u r y
SYMPTOMS AND COMPLICATIONS
S y m p t o m s u s u a l l y i n c l u d e f e v e r , c h i l l s ,
s h o r t n e s s o f b r e a t h , a s h a r p c h e s t p a i n ,
a n d a c o u g h t h a t p r o d u c e s y e l l o w - g r e e n
s p u t u m
a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y b l o o d .
P o t e n t i a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e
p le u ra l
e ffu s io n
( f l u i d a r o u n d t h e l u n g ) ,
p le u r is y
( i n f l a m m a t i o n o f t h e m e m b r a n e l i n i n g
t h e
l u n g s
a n d
c h e s t
c a v i t y ) ,
a
l u n g
a b s c e s s
( c o l l e c t i o n
o f p u s ) ,
a n d
s e p t i-
c a e m ia
( b l o o d p o i s o n i n g ) .
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
D i a g n o s i s i s m a d e b y p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a -
t i o n ,
c h e st X -ray,
a n d e x a m i n i n g s p u t u m
a n d b l o o d f o r m i c r o o r g a n i s m s . T r e a t m e n t
d e p e n d s o n t h e c a u s e , a n d u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s
a n tib io tic d ru g s . A s p irin
o r
p a ra c e ta m o l
m a y
b e g i v e n t o r e d u c e f e v e r , a n d , i n s e v e r e
c a s e s ,
o xy g en th e ra p y
a n d a r t i f i c i a l
v e n tila -
tion
m a y b e n e e d e d .
I n m o s t c a s e s , r e c o v e r y u s u a l l y o c c u r s
w i t h i n t w o w e e k s .
p n e u m o n itis
I n f l a m m a t i o n
o f t h e
l u n g s
t h a t
m a y
c a u s e
c o u g h i n g ,
b r e a t h i n g
d i f f i c u l t y ,
a n d w h e e z i n g . C a u s e s i n c l u d e a n a l l e r -
g i c r e a c t i o n t o d u s t c o n t a i n i n g a n i m a l
o r
p l a n t
m a t e r i a l
( s e e
a lv e o lit is )
a n d
e x p o s u r e t o r a d i a t i o n ( s e e
ra d ia t io n h a z -
a r d s ).
P n e u o m o n i t i s m a y a l s o o c c u r a s
a
s i d e
e f f e c t
o f d r u g s ,
s u c h
a s
a m io -
d a ro n e
a n d
a z a t h io p rin e .
p n e u m o th o ra x
A
c o n d i t i o n
i n
w h i c h
a i r
e n t e r s
t h e
p l e u r a l
c a v i t y
( t h e
s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e
l a y e r s
o f m
e m
b r a n e l i n i n g
t h e
l u n g ) ,
c a u s i n g p a r t i a l o r t o t a l c o l l a p s e o f t h e
l u n g . T h e a i r m a y e n t e r t h e l u n g s f r o m
t h e a i r w a y s o r f r o m o u t s i d e t h e b o d y
CAUSES
T h e m o s t c o m
m o n c a u s e i s t h e s p o n t a -
n e o u s r u p t u r e
o f a n e n l a r g e d a l v e o l u s
( a i r s a c ) . T h i s o c c u r r e n c e i s m
u c h m o r e
c o m
m
o n
i n
m e n
t h a n
i n
w o m e n ;
i t
u s u a l l y a f f e c t s t a l l , t h i n y o u n g m e n w h o
h a v e n o u n d e r l y i n g l u n g d i s e a s e . O t h e r
p o s s i b l e
c a u s e s
i n c l u d e
a
p e n e t r a t i n g
P
PNEUMONIA
Pneumonia is not a single disease,
but the name for several types of
lung inflammation usually caused
by infectious organisms. In some
cases, accidental inhalation of vomit
or a liquid may start an infection. The
symptoms, treatment, and outcome
vary greatly, depending on the
cause and on the general health
ofthe patient.
Lobar pneumonia
In this type of pneumonia, the inflammation is
usually confined to just one lobe of one lung,
often a lower lobe.
The X-ray clearly shows lobar pneumonia in the
patient’s right lung (on the left in the image).
The blotchy white areas within the darker areas
correspond to patches of inflamed lung.
615
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