PUBERTY
l i k e l y t o b e a d i s o r d e r o f b r a i n f u n c t i o n .
D ru g a b u s e
m a y
a l s o
p r e c i p i t a t e
p s y -
c h o s i s , w h i c h c a n b e a c u t e o r c h r o n i c .
P s y c h o s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m a i n
c a t e g o r i e s ,
n a m e l y
s c h iz o p h re n ia , m a n ic -
d e p re ss iv e illn e s s ,
a n d o r g a n i c b r a i n s y n -
d r o m e
( s e e
b ra in s y n d ro m e , o r g a n ic ).
P a ra n o ia
m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d t o
c o n s t i -
t u t e
a
f o u r t h
c a t e g o r y .
S y m p t o m s
o f
p s y c h o s i s
i n c l u d e
d e lu s io n s ,
h a llu c in a -
t io n s ,
a n d
c h a n g e
i n
a f f e c t
( m
o o d ) ,
i n c l u d i n g
m a n ia
a n d
d e p re s s io n .
E p i s o d e s
o f
a c u t e
p s y c h o s i s
m a y
i m p r o v e
w i t h
o r
w i t h o u t
d r u g
t r e a t -
m e n t .
A n tip s y c h o tic d ru g s
a r e
u s u a l l y
e f f e c t i v e
i n
c o n t r o l l i n g
t h e
s y m p t o m s .
L o n g - t e r m t r e a t m e n t ,
r e h a b ilit a t io n ,
a n d
s u p p o r t
a r e
o f t e n
n e e d e d .
( S e e
a l s o
p u e r p e r a l p s y c h o s is .)
p s y c h o s o m a tic
A t e r m t h a t d e s c r i b e s p h y s i c a l d i s o r d e r s
t h a t s e e m t o b e c a u s e d , o r m a d e w o r s e ,
b y
p s y c h o l o g i c a l
f a c t o r s .
C o m
m
o n
e x a m p l e s
o f
c o n d i t i o n s
t h a t
m a y
b e
p s y c h o s o m a t i c a r e h e a d a c h e , b r e a t h l e s s -
n e s s ,
n a u s e a ,
a s th m a ,
ir rit a b le
b o w e l
s y n d ro m e , d y s p e p s ia ,
a n d s o m e t y p e s o f
e c z e m a .
( S e e a l s o
s o m a tiz a t io n d is o r d e r .)
p s y c h o s u rg e ry
A n y o p e r a t i o n o n t h e b r a i n t h a t i s c a r -
r i e d o u t a s a t r e a t m e n t f o r s e r i o u s m e n t a l
i l l n e s s .
I t
i s
p e r f o r m e d
o n l y
a s
a
l a s t
r e s o r t w h e n o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s h a v e f a i l e d .
P r e f r o n t a l
lo b o to m y
h a s n o w b e e n l a r g e l y
r e p l a c e d b y t y p e s o f
s te re o ta x ic s u rg e ry .
p s y c h o th e ra p y
T r e a t m e n t
o f
m e n t a l
a n d
e m o t i o n a l
p r o b l e m s
b y
t h e u s e
o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l
m e t h o d s .
P a t i e n t s
t a l k
t o
a
t h e r a p i s t
a b o u t
t h e i r
s y m p t o m s
a n d
p r o b l e m s ,
w i t h t h e a i m
o f l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h e m
-
s e l v e s ,
d e v e l o p i n g
i n s i g h t s
i n t o
t h e i r
r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d , u l t i m a t e l y , c h a n g i n g
t h e i r b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s .
p s y c h o tro p ic d ru g s
D r u g s t h a t h a v e a n e f f e c t o n t h e m i n d ,
i n c l u d i n g
h a llu c in o g e n ic d r u g s
,
s e d a t iv e
d r u g s , s le e p in g d ru g s , t ra n q u illiz e r d ru g s ,
a n d
a n tip s y c h o t ic d r u g s
.
p te ry g iu m
A w i n g - s h a p e d t h i c k e n i n g
o f t h e
c o n -
ju n c t iv a
t h a t e x t e n d s f r o m e i t h e r s i d e o f
t h e e y e t o w a r d s t h e c e n t r e . P t e r y g i u m i s
a t t r i b u t e d
t o
p r o l o n g e d
e x p o s u r e
t o
b r i g h t s u n l i g h t a n d i s c o m
m
o n i n t r o p -
i c a l a r e a s . I t i s s u r g i c a l l y r e m o v e d i f i t
t h r e a t e n s v i s i o n o r c a u s e s d i s c o m f o r t .
Appearance of pterygium
The conjunctiva has extended beyond the white of
the eye to encroach on the cornea (the transparent
front part of the eye).
p to s is
D r o o p i n g o f t h e u p p e r e y e l i d . I t m a y b e
c o n g e n it a l,
o c c u r
s p o n t a n e o u s l y ,
o r
b e
d u e t o i n j u r y o r d i s e a s e , s u c h a s
m y a s -
t h e n ia g r a v is .
I t m a y b e d u e t o w e a k n e s s
o f t h e l e v a t o r m u s c l e o f t h e e y e l i d o r
i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h n e r v e
s u p p l y .
S e v e r e
c o n g e n i t a l p t o s i s i s c o r r e c t e d s u r g i c a l l y .
Congenital ptosis in a child
This condition, which is present from birth, should
be corrected surgically in order to prevent any
disturbance of visual development.
p ty a lism
S e e
s a liv a t io n , e x c e s s iv e .
p u b e rty
T h e
p e r i o d
d u r i n g w h i c h
a d u l t
b o d y
f e a t u r e s
( s e e
s e x u a l c h a ra c t e ris t ic s , s e c -
o n d a ry )
d e v e l o p
a n d
s e x u a l
o r g a n s
m a t u r e , m a k i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n p o s s i b l e .
CHANGES OF PUBERTY
There is considerable variation in the age of onset of puberty, but girls, on average,
undergo puberty at an earlier age than boys. The entire process takes about three
to four years to reach completion. In addition to the changes specific to each sex,
height and weight of both girls and boys increase rapidly.
Puberty most often starts between the ages
of 10 and 12 in girls. Major changes include
growth of breasts and pubic hair, widening
of the hips, enlargement of the uterus, and
the onset of menstruation.
The main changes are enlargement ofthe
sex organs, widening ofthe shoulders,
deepening ofthe voice, and the growth of
facial and pubic hair. The onset is usually
between the ages of 12 and 14.
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